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The Growth of Marine Labs
Before the Challenger Expedition vessels only had room
for few scientists.
The rest of the scientists
only got to see dead
- good for structure of organisms.
- no good for learning how they lived,
functioned, and what they did.
Scientists on board vessels were able to see how organisms
lived but only for a short period of time.
Biologists soon began to conduct studies on the seashore
so they could perform long term research projects...
In 1872 Stazione Zoologica was founded in Naples by
German biologists.
In 1879 the Marine Biological Society of the
United Kingdom was founded at Plymouth England.
Between 1871- 1887 were considered the formative years for Woods
Hole, the 1st marine lab established in the U.S.
World War II had a major impact on the development of
marine biology.
SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging) was a direct
development as a result of World War II.
Sonar is able to pick up sounds in the ocean made by
underwater life, and more important to the Navy, sounds made by
The speed of sound through sea water is approximately 1500 m/s
(meters per second).
If it takes 30 seconds for sound to travel from the surface to the
bottom and back, how deep is the water? ( 30x1500 ) / 2 = 22,500 m
In the years right after
WWII (late 40’s) the
self contained
underwater breathing
apparatus, or SCUBA,
was refined.
Data Collection Platforms
Research Vessel (R/V) is a surface-bound ship equipped with
navigational, sampling, and analytical equipment.
Possible configurations include:
1. single-hulled
ie. R/V Thomas G. Thompson
2. multi-hulled
ie. R/V Kilo Moana
3. spoon-shaped buoy
FLIP’s unconventional design maximizes its analytical capabilities
in rough seas creating a more stable platform for collection of
data by precise instruments effected by heavy waves.
Deep Submergence Vessels (DSV) are high-tech submarines capable
of reaching the deepest parts of the ocean. Examples include:
Trieste – An early DSV displaying the
classic deep submergence vessel design
Alvin – Perhaps the most famous DSV. One of its
most memorable missions was the discovery of
deep-sea hydrothermal vents.
Permanent Underwater Labs are underwater labs that allow
long-term observation, collection & analysis. Some examples
Hydrolab – The most famous and widely used
habitat based in the Bahamas and Caribbean
from 1972 to 1985.
Aquarius – Based in the Florida Keys. It is
currently the world’s only underwater
marine science lab.
Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) is an unmanned vehicle controlled
from the surface, allowing more hazardous missions while
eliminating human risk.
An example would be:
Jason / Medea
A two-body ROV
system, with Medea
serving as a base for
Jason, which conducts
more detailed
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle - AUV is an unmanned vehicle preprogrammed to do their jobs independently of direct human control.
An example is:
Autonomous Benthic Explorer ABE is the first underwater
robotic vehicle of its kind. Its
tether-less design allows it to
cover large areas of underwater
Remote sensing technology – involves the use of satellites and
computers. Can be used to:
• measure sea surface temperature
• track ocean currents
• track weather
• measure populations
• monitor human impacts