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Photosynthesis
Notes
Photosynthesis Notes
 Photosynthesis:
process by which producers convert light
energy from the sun into chemical energy in
the form of glucose (food).
 Importance:
converts light energy into stored energy using
inorganic materials
Photosynthesis
 Reactants:
 carbon dioxide – 6CO2
 water – 6H2O
 Products:
 glucose – C6H12O6
 oxygen – 6O2
Photosynthesis
Location:
in the chloroplasts
Photosynthesis
Other Things Necessary:
 Chlorophyll: the light-capturing pigment
found in the chloroplast that absorbs all
wavelengths (colors) of light except green.
 Sunlight: autotrophs need light energy
(sunlight) to transform reactants into products.
 Enzymes (specialized proteins): enzymes
are needed to catalyze the reaction.
Photosynthesis Equation
Balanced Equation:
Summary of
Photosynthesis
 Chlorophyll and other pigments located in
the chloroplasts absorb the sun’s energy,
which stimulates carbon dioxide and
water to react and form glucose and
oxygen.
 The energy is stored in the bonds of the
glucose. Organisms must break these
bonds (do cellular respiration) to get the
energy.
Cellular Respiration
Notes
Cellular Respiration Process
& Importance
 Cellular Respiration: process by which
food energy (glucose) is broken down to
form usable energy (ATP).
 Importance: Converts energy to a
form that is directly usable by our cells
(ATP)!
Cellular Respiration
Reactants & Products
Reactants:
 glucose – C6H12O6
 oxygen – 6O2
Products:
 carbon dioxide – 6CO2
 water – 6H2O
 ATP (usable chemical energy)
 heat energy
Cellular Respiration
 Location: in the mitochondria
Animal Cells
Animal
Mitochondrion
Plant
Plant Cells
Cellular Respiration Equation
glucose + oxygen
carbon dioxide + water + ATP + heat
EXCEPT there are 2 BIG
DIFFERENCES:
1. Although it’s a rapid process, glucose is
broken down in our mitochondria in a series
of steps (taken apart piece by piece.) Each
step is dictated by a specific enzyme.
2. When energy is released, it is “repackaged”
into 36 ATP molecules (chemical energy) that
temporarily store the energy and carry it to
where it is needed in the cell.
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
Objective 7: Describe how the ATP molecule is used
to store energy. (phosphate bonds, ATP – ADP
cycle)
ATP
 ATP (adenosine triphosphate):
molecule that temporarily stores energy
released from glucose and carries it to
other parts of the cell.
 Has 3 bonds that store energy
 When a phosphate bond is broken, energy
is released
 When a phosphate bond is made, energy
is stored
Chemical Energy and ATP
 ATP consists of:
 adenine
 ribose (a 5-carbon sugar)
 3 phosphate groups
Adenine
ATP
Ribose
3 Phosphate groups
Chemical Energy and ATP
 Storing Energy
 ADP has two phosphate groups instead of three.
 A cell can store small amounts of energy by adding a
phosphate group to ADP.
ATP
ADP
+
Adenosine Diphosphate
(ADP) + Phosphate
Partially
charged
battery
Energy
Fully
charged
battery
Adenosine
Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy
ATP – ADP Cycle
Energy Uses
Objective 6: Provide three examples
of how energy is used in living
things.
Energy is used by the cell to
do work:
1. Movement: flagella, cilia, muscle
contraction
2. Active transport: move molecules across
cell membrane
3. Building up and breaking down large
molecules
**All organisms (heterotrophs and
autotrophs) do cellular respiration!!**
Aerobic v.
Anaerobic
Respiration Notes
Two Types of Cellular
Respiration
Aerobic Respiration

Location: occurs in mitochondria

Oxygen requirement: oxygen is required

Amount of usable energy converted: 36 ATP
for each molecule of glucose

Process: glucose is broken down through a
series of steps, piece by piece, so that a large
portion of its stored energy can be utilized by
the cell. This is the most efficient way to
break down glucose.

Waste products: water, carbon dioxide, and
heat
Two Types of Cellular
Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration

Occurs in fully anaerobic organisms (never
use oxygen)

Occurs in aerobic organisms (i.e. humans)
for short periods of time

Location: occurs in cytoplasm

Oxygen requirement: oxygen is not
required

Amount of usable energy converted: 2 ATP
for each molecule of glucose
Anaerobic Respiration
Two major types:
 Alcoholic Anaerobic Respiration:
 Occurs in yeast
 Waste products: alcohol and carbon dioxide
 Lactic Acid Anaerobic Respiration:
 Occurs in animals, when no oxygen is present (when
oxygen cannot get to muscles quickly enough)
 Waste products: lactic acid and carbon dioxide
Comparing Cellular
Respiration to
Photosynthesis