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Transcript
Anatomy and Physiology I
Fall 2014
The Skeletal System, Part 2
Be familiar with the following terms BEFORE COMING TO LAB:
1.
Inter-
2.
Infra-
3.
Extra-
4.
Hiatus
5.
Costal
6.
Supra-
7.
Sub-
8.
Tubercle
9.
Epi-
10.
Condyle
11.
Epicondyle
12.
Axillary
13.
Meta-
14.
Os
15.
Symphysis
16.
Apex
17.
Carpals
18.
Tarsals
19.
Phalanges
20.
Endo-
21.
Peri-
In Class: be able to identify the following on the skeleton and on disarticulated
bones. Be sure to feel the italicized structures on your own body
I.
Vertebral Column and Thorax
A.
Vertebrae
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cervical Vertebrae – in neck region. They contain transverse foramina.
Their spinous processes may be bifurcating (forked)
Thoracic Vertebrae – articulate with the ribs. Spinous processes are long
and point downward. “Giraffe face.” Locate facet for tubercule of ribs
Lumbar Vertebrae – in lower back region. Thick, heavy bodies. Spinous
processes are short and point straight backwards. “Moose face”
Sacrum – 5 fused bones
See below
Coccyx – 3-5 fused bones. “Tail bone”
Know # vertebrae in each region – breakfast, lunch, and dinner analogy
For the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, know the following:
1.
Body
2.
Vertebral foramen – found WITHIN individual vertebrae
3.
Spinous process
4.
Transverse processes
5.
Transverse foramina – only found in cervical vertebrae
6.
Superior articular processes
7.
Inferior articular processes
8.
Inferior vertebral notch – where present
9.
Intervertebral disc (on intact skeleton) – cartilage BETWEEN vertebrae
10.
Intervertebral foramen (on intact skeleton) - found BETWEEN vertebrae
B.
1.
2.
Be able to identify:
Atlas (C1) – the only vertebra that lacks a body
Axis (C2) and the dens (odontoid process) (sticks up like sore thumb)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
For the sacrum, know the following:
Sacral promontory
Median sacral crest
Lateral sacral crests
Sacral canal
Sacral hiatus
Sternum
1.
2.
3.
4.
C.
Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid process – often broken off during CPR
Sternal angle
Ribs
1.
Three Types of Ribs
a.
True ribs - #1-7. Cartilage articulates directly with sternum
b.
False - #8-12. Cartilage does NOT directly articulate with sternum
Floating - #11-12. These last 2 ribs have no cartilage
2
2.
II.
Parts of the Ribs to Identify
a.
Head
b.
Body
c.
Articulating tubercle – articulates with facet of thoracic vertebrae
d.
Costal groove (feel on lower portion of the back of ribs)
e.
Costal cartilage – attaches ribs #1-10 to sternum
Upper Extremities
A.
Clavicle
B.
Scapula
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
C.
Glenoid cavity – articulates with head of humerus
Spine
Supraspinous fossa – depression above spine on posterior surface
Infraspinous fossa – depression below spine on posterior surface
Subscapular fossa – depression on anterior surface
Acromion process - posterior
Coracoid process - anterior
Medial (vertebral) margin
Lateral (axillary) margin
Scapular notch
Humerus
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Be Able to Identify Right and Left Bones!!!
Head
Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle
Intertubercular groove
Anatomical head
Capitulum
Trochlea
Coranoid fossa
Olecranon fossa
Radial fossa – articulates with head of radius
Lateral epicondyle
Medial epicondyle
D.
Ulna (has U-shaped proximal portion) – medial forearm. NOTE: many structures
on proximal ulna articulate with those on the distal humerus
1.
Olecranon process – fits into olecranon fossa
2.
Trochlear (semilunar) notch – articulates with trochlea
3.
Coronoid process – fits into coronoid fossa
4.
Radial notch – articulates with radius
5.
Styloid process
E.
Radius – lateral forearm
1.
Head
3
2.
3.
4.
F.
III.
Neck
Radial tuberosity
Styloid process
Hand – you are responsible for all bones as seen on intact hand
1.
Carpals – wrist bones
Proximal row - pisiform, triquetal (trianglular), lunate, scaphoid
Distal row - hamate, capitates, traphoid, trapezium
2.
Metacarpals – 5 hand bones
3.
Phalanges – 14 finger bones
Proximal, middle, and distal for 4 fingers; thumb lacks a middle phalange
Lower Extremities
A.
Os Coxae – hip bones; composed of Ilium, Ischium, and Pubis. “Bone Phone”
analogy
1.
Acetabulum
2.
Obturator foramen
Ilium
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Iliac crest
Anterior superior and anterior inferior iliac spines
Posterior superior and posterior inferior iliac spines
Sacroiliac joint
Greater sciatic notch
Ischium
8.
Ischial spine
9.
Ischial tuberosity
10.
Lesser sciatic notch
Pubis
11.
Pubic symphysis
B.
Femur
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Head
Fovea capitis
Neck
Greater trochanter
Lesser trochanter
Linea aspera (“white line”)
Patellar surface – on distal anterior surface; articulates with patella
Lateral epicondyle
Medial epicondyle
Lateral condyle
Medial condyle
Intercondylar surface
4
C.
Patella
1.
2.
3.
D.
Tibia
1.
2.
3.
4.
E.
Lateral malleolus
Foot – you are responsible for all bones as seen on intact foot
1.
2.
3.
IV.
Tibial tuberosity
Medial malleolus
Lateral condyle
Medial condyle
Fibula
1.
F.
Apex
Anterior surface
Posterior surface
Tarsals – heel bones
Calcaneous, talus, navicular, cuniforms (medial, intermediate, lateral),
cuboid
Metatarsals – 5 foot bones
Phalanges – 14 toe bones
Proximal, middle, and distal for 4 toes; great toe lacks middle phalange
Types of Bones
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Long bone – elongated (examples = humerus, tibia, fibula, ulna)
Short bone – phalanges
Irregular bones – vertebrae, ox coxa, sphenoid
Sesmoid bones – patella
Wormian (sutural) bones – “extra bones” found between sutures in skull
V.
Know at least 3 differences between a male and female pelvis
VI.
Be able to identify bone structures on microscope slides and the bone model
Osteon, osteocytes, concentric lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi, central (Haversian) canal
VII. Whole Bone –be able to locate the following:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Diaphysis – compact bone: red bone marrow
Epiphysis - trabecular (spongy): yellow bone marrow
Volkmann canal
Articular cartilage
Endosteum
Periosteum
5