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1.1 Outline
Earth has several layers
I. Earth is made up of materials
with different densities
Four main layers: inner core,
outer core, mantle, crust
II. Earth’s layers have different
Scientists study how the energy from
earthquakes and underground
explosions travels
A. Core, Mantle, Crust
Inner core: a ball of hot, solid materials,
enormous pressure; remains a solid
Outer core: layer of liquid metals that
surrounds inner core; remains a liquid
due to lower pressure
Mantle: thickest layer (2900 km or 1700
mi); hot rock that is less dense than core;
top part is cool & rigid; below that is hot,
thick paste
A. Core, Mantle, Crust
Crust: thin layer of cool rock; 2 types:
continental (thickest), & oceanic
Lithosphere: made up of Earth’s crust &
very top of mantle; most rigid of all layers
Asthenosphere: layer of hotter, softer
rock in upper mantle; flows slowly like
hot tar
III. Lithosphere is made up of
many plates
Tectonic plates: large and small slabs of
rock created from the lithosphere
Lithosphere can be compared to the
cracked shell of a hard boiled egg
Most tectonic plates are made up of
BOTH continental and oceanic crust
Two of the most important discoveries in
geology are Earth’s layers and tectonic