Download Chapter 11 - Glasgow Independent Schools

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Jacobin wikipedia , lookup

Historiography of the French Revolution wikipedia , lookup

National Convention wikipedia , lookup

French Revolutionary Wars wikipedia , lookup

War of the Fourth Coalition wikipedia , lookup

Germaine de Staël wikipedia , lookup

Reign of Terror wikipedia , lookup

War of the Sixth Coalition wikipedia , lookup

Causes of the French Revolution wikipedia , lookup

Insurrection of 10 August 1792 wikipedia , lookup

Demonstration of 20 June 1792 wikipedia , lookup

Vincent-Marie Viénot, Count of Vaublanc wikipedia , lookup

Louis XVI and the Legislative Assembly wikipedia , lookup

Chapter 11
The French Revolution and Napoleon
Section 1: The French
Revolution Begins
• French population was divided into
three orders (estates):
– 1st Estate: consisted of clergy – were exempt from
the taille (tax)
– 2nd Estate: consisted of the nobility – held
positions in the government, military, courts, and
higher church offices – also exempt from the taille
– 3rd Estate: consisted of the commoners (peasants,
craftspeople, shopkeepers, and bourgeoisie:
merchants, bankers, lawyers, doctors, etc…) –
were forced to pay the taille, as well as pay a fee
for use of village facilities
• Causes of the French Revolution:
– Aristocrats and bourgeoisie were drawn to
the ideas of Enlightenment
– Bad harvests led to food shortages, rising
prices for food, and unemployment
– Government continued to spend money on
costly wars and court luxuries
• Estates-General
– Made up of representatives from the three
– Voting was not equal between the estates
– The 3rd Estate called itself a National
Assembly and decided to draft a
– On June20, 1789, the 3rd Estate arrived to
their meeting place, only to find it locked.
– They moved to a nearby tennis court and
promised to meet until they produced a
French constitution. This became known
as the Tennis Court Oath.
– King Louis XVI was prepared to use force
against the 3rd Estate.
– The common people stormed the Bastille
(armory and prison) and dismantled it brick
by brick.
– Peasant rebellions took place throughout
**end of notes**
• On August 4, 1789, the National Assembly voted to
abolish the rights and financial privileges of the clergy
and nobles.
• On August 26th they adopted the Declaration of the
Rights of Man and the Citizen.
– It was inspired by the American Declaration of
– It proclaimed equal rights for all men, freedom of
speech and ended the tax exemptions.
• King Louis XVI, who remained at Versailles, refused
to accept the National Assembly’s declaration.
– A delegation of women met with the king on
October 5th to describe the horrible conditions their
children were suffering from.
– The king was forced to accept the new decrees
and to move back to Paris to show his support of
the National Assembly.
• The royal family became virtual prisoners in Paris.
• Church lands were seized and sold
because of the need for money.
• A new constitution was created – the
Constitution of 1791. It set up a limited
monarchy: there would still be a king but
the Legislative Assembly would make
the laws.
• King Louis XVI tried to flee France in June of
1791. He was captured and brought back to
• The rulers of Austria and Prussia were willing
to use force to restore full power to the king.
– The Legislative Assembly declared war on
Austria in the Spring of 1792.
• Upset with the current conditions,
radical political groups, declared
themselves a commune and organized
a mob attack on the royal palace and
Legislative Assembly.
– They took the king captive and took control
of power from the National Assembly.
**end of notes**
Section2: Radical Revolution
and Reaction
• Under the commune’s control, the
Legislative Assembly was forced to call
a National Convention to seek revenge
on those who had helped the king.
– Thousands of people were arrested and
• On September 21, 1792, the National
Convention abolished the monarchy and
established the French Republic.
• On January 21, 1793, the king was
– This causes an uproar with the royalty of other
– It marks the beginning of the period known as the
“Reign of Terror.”
– The Reign of Terror was enacted to defend
France from foreign and domestic threats.
It was led by Maximilien Robespierre who
was in charge of the Committee of Public
• Close to 40,000 people would be killed during
the Reign of Terror, including Marie Antoinette.
• Revolutionary armies were established
to bring rebellious cities back under
– In Lyon, 1,880 citizens were executed.
(Some were killed with the guillotine while
others were killed with grapeshot.)
– In Nantes, victims were executed by
sinking barges into the local river.
**end of notes**
• Positive effects of the Revolution:
– A law aimed at primary education for all
was passed.
– Slavery was abolished.
– Price limits were placed goods considered
a necessity.
• Other effects of the Revolution:
– The National Convention pursued a policy of
Saint was removed from street names
Churches were closed
Priests were encouraged to marry
New calendar was adopted – it would not be numbered
based from the birth of Jesus. Months were given new
names also.
• Tired of his control, the National
Convention eventually condemned
Robespierre. He was guillotined on July
28, 1794.
– The Reign of Terror came to an end.
• In August of 1795, a new constitution
was created that created more stability.
– It established a national assembly
consisting of two houses:
• Lower house known as the Council of 500 –
initiated legislation
• Upper house known as the Council of Elders –
accepted or rejected the proposed laws
• From 1795 – 1799, officials in the
legislation were corrupt leading people
to another public outcry.
– In 1799, a coup d'état occurred under the
leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte.
**end of notes**
Section 3: The Age of Napoleon
• Napoleon was born in 1769.
• He quickly rose in rank in the French military.
– He received his education in French military
– He became a lieutenant in the military in 1785.
– By the age of 24 he was a brigadier general.
– In 1796, he was made a commander of the French
armies in Italy.
• When the coup d'état occurred, Napoleon
was only 30.
• A consulate was established as a new
– In 1802, Napoleon was made consul for life.
– In 1804, he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I.
• His most famous domestic achievement was
his codification of the laws.
– He condensed the 300 different legal systems into
on seven codes of law.
• After his grand army defeated the Austrian,
Prussian, and Russian armies, he was ready
to create a new European order.
• Napoleon had hoped that his Grand
Empire would last for centuries.
However, it collapsed for two reasons:
– Great Britain
– Nationalism
• The downfall of Napoleon began with
his invasion of Russia in 1812.
– The Russians retreated from the advancing
French military, burning their own villages
and countryside to keep his army from
finding food.
– They retreated under terrible winter
conditions, killing most of the troops.
• Napoleon was captured in March of
1814 and exiled to the island of Elba.
– Monarchy was restored to France under
King Louis VXIII
• Napoleon escaped a year later, only to
be recaptured and exiled to St. Helena.
**end of notes**