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Transcript
Political Revolutions Test Review
Key People to Know
Phillip II of Spain – defender of Catholicism, who fought off the Ottoman Muslims, and Protestantism
in England and Netherlands
Louis XIV of France – weakened French nobility by forcing nobles to stay at Versailles and
strengthened the power of government officials and tax collectors
Maximilien Robespierre – leader of the Reign of Terror, and removed all traces of Frances monarch and
nobility
Jacobins – most radical group that opposed the monarchy and wanted to remove any trace of it
Napoleon Bonaparte – military leader, who attempted to restore France as a world power,
Jean Paul Marat – writer of a radical newspaper that called out the names of the enemies of the
revolution
What were three key mistakes made by Napoleon that caused his downfall?
Continental system and forcing the blockade of the ports, fighting a peninsular war with
Portugal due to the use of guerillas by Portugal; invading Russia in winter
What was reduced as a result of the Glorious Revolution?
Divine right and absolute power of the monarch
What was spread that helped spark the Revolutions in France, America and Latin America?
Nationalism
Why was the Third Estate dissatisfied, which led to the starting of the French Revolution?
Misrepresented with taxes and social status, and making up 98% of the population and only
having one vote in the Estates-General
Louis XVI called a meeting of what group to approve tax reforms for France?
Estates-General
The monarchy answering to only God and serving as God’s representative on Earth is best defined by
what word?
Absolutism
What was the main idea around the National Assembly?
Giving the third estate power to pass and reform laws for the French people
What problems showed weakness and vulnerability in the Spanish Empire?
Inflation – population was growing causing more demand for food and rising prices; took
increased amounts of silver to buy things
Spanish cloth was expensive, causing Spaniards to buy from France, England and Netherlands
Dutch revolt as Phillip tries to control subjects
How did Robespierre keep the people from rebelling against him during the Reign of Terror?
Striking fear in the people with quick trials and beheadings with the guillotine
How did Parliament limit the power of the monarch of Britain?
Refused to grant monarchs funds; forced Charles I to sign petition of rights; Parliament
drafted Bill of Rights
What was the main goal of the Coalitions against Napoleon?
Remove Napoleon from power in France
What were the three goals of the Congress of Vienna?
Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with stronger countries
Restore balance of power so no country would be threat to another
Restore Europe’s royal families to thrones before Napoleon
How did Napoleon help stabilize the French economy when he took power?
Set up national banks, tax collection systems, government run public schools, and strong
central government
What group benefitted the most as a result of the French Revolution?
Third Estate, Upper middle class, and bourgeoisie