Download Chapter 6 notes Sections 1 - 2

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On the Eve of Revolution
• French society consisted of three social classes: the clergy, or First
Estate; the nobility, or Second Estate; and the rest of the population,
or Third Estate.
• In 1789, France faced social discontent, a severe financial crisis,
and serious food shortages.
• Louis XVI called on the Estates General to carry out reforms, but
members of the Third Estate defied the king and, saying that they
represented the people, proclaimed themselves the National
• The “National Assembly” found themselves locked out of their
meeting hall.
• Took the Tennis Court Oath; vowed not to disband until they had
drawn up a constitution for France.
• On July 14, 1789, an angry mob stormed the Bastille, an event that
quickly became the symbol of the French Revolution.
Chapter 19, Section 1
Then and Now
Creating a New France
• After the storming of the Bastille, the political crisis in France
worsened; as did a famine that was gripping the country.
• The Great Fear: Set off by rumors
– Attacks by peasants
– Government seizing peasant crops
• Marquis de Lafayette: “Hero of two worlds”– Leader of French
National Guard.
• Spurred by popular uprisings and the storming of the Bastille, the
National Assembly ended privileges that belonged to the 2nd
• Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen:
– Modeled after Dec. of Independence; 13 years earlier
– “Liberty, property, security and freedom from oppression.”
– “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
Creating a New France Cont’d
• Louis XVI did not accept reforms, he and nobles enjoyed gala
banquets at Versailles while people were starving.
• Women march from Paris to Versailles on October 5th, forcing Louis
XVI to return to Paris.
• Louis becomes a “prisoner” of his own country!
• Constitution of 1791: The National Assembly (Third Estate) finally
drafted a Constitution.
– Tax collection
– Making laws
- War and peace
- Religion
• Louis XVI tried to escape his embarrassing situation by fleeing the
city. He was caught just outside of Paris.
Creating a New France Cont’d
• To moderates the Revolution appeared to
be complete.
• In a weakened state, France was
threatened by other European powers.
• This brought out radicals. The revolution
was about to turn nasty.
Radical Days
• In 1792, radicals took control of the
National Assembly. In 1793, they executed
the king and queen.
Radical Days cont’d
• During the Reign of Terror, Robespierre
and his Committee of Public Safety sent
some 40,000 French citizens to their
deaths on the guillotine.
The Age of Napoleon Begins
• Napoleon used his military exploits in the
revolution to gain power and took the title of
emperor in 1804.
• As emperor, Napoleon strengthened the central
government, modernized finance, and instituted
the Napoleonic Code.
• From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon subdued the
combined forces of the great European powers
and built a vast empire by annexing lands,
making alliances, and placing members of his
family on the thrones of Europe.
Chapter 19, Section 4
The End of an Era
• Spurred by rising nationalism, people across Europe
mounted rebellions against French rule.
• Following a failed invasion of Russia and major defeats
at Leipzig and Waterloo, Napoleon was removed from
• In 1815, the Congress of Vienna sought to restore
stability and order in Europe. They redrew national
boundaries, restored hereditary monarchies, and created
the Concert of Europe, an organization pledged to
maintain the balance of power and to suppress any
uprisings inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution.
Chapter 19, Section 5
Stages of the French
National Assembly
(moderate phase)
National Assembly
(radical phase)
• Third Estate takes
Tennis Court Oath
• Storming of Bastille
• Declaration of the
Rights of Man and the
• National Assembly sells
church lands and puts
Catholic Church under
state control
• Paris Commune emerges
• Constitution of 1791 limits
monarchy and creates
Legislative Assembly
• Legislative Assembly
declares war on Austria,
Prussia, and Britain
• Radicals take control
of Legislative
Assembly and set up
National Convention
• National Convention
abolishes monarchy
and declares France
a republic
• Louis XVI and Marie
Antoinette executed
• Committee of Public
Safety set up
• Robespierre leads
Reign of Terror:
40,000 people
• Moderate
Constitution of
• Five-man Directory
• Riots suppressed
• Corrupt leadership
• Chaos threatened
Age of Napoleon
• Napoleon Bonaparte
helps overthrow
• Consulate set up with
Napoleon as first consul
• Napoleon names himself
consul for life, and later
Emperor of the French
• Economic and religious
reforms instituted
• Napoleonic Code
• Military victories create
French empire in Europe
• French defeat in
Battle of the Nations
leads to Napoleon's
abdication and exile