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Transcript
Bellwork – A Day – 9.8.14
p.242
• On a sheet of looseleaf paper, copy down the
following sentence and label each word’s part of
speech underneath the word.
Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday.
1. Return graded bellwork in BELLWORK section of binder in chronological order of date.
2. When finished, begin silently reading.
Bellwork – B Day – 9.9.14
p.242
• On a sheet of looseleaf paper, copy down the
following sentence and label each word’s part of
speech underneath the word.
Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday.
1. Return graded bellwork in BELLWORK section of binder in chronological order of date.
2. When finished, begin silently reading.
What is an appositive?
• An appositive is a noun, a noun phrase, or a noun clause which sits next to
another noun to rename it or to describe it in another way. (The
word appositive comes from the Latin for to put near.)
For example:
• The beast, a lion, was starting to show interest in our party.
(In this example, the appositive is a noun.)
• The beast, a large lion with a mane like a bonfire, was starting to show
interest in our party.
(In this example, the appositive is a noun phrase.)
• The beast, a large lion with a mane like a bonfire which was looking
hungry, was starting to show interest in our party.
(In this example, the appositive is a noun clause.)
What is an Action Verb Predicate?
• A predicate is the completer of a sentence.
• The subject names the "do-er" or "be-er" of the
sentence; the predicate does the rest of the work.
• A simple predicate consists of only a verb, verb
string, or compound verb:
• The glacier melted.
• The glacier has been melting.
• The glacier melted, broke apart, and slipped into
the sea.
What is a direct object?
• SUBJECT + ACTION VERB + what? or who? = DIRECT OBJECT
• A direct object will follow an action verb. Direct
objects can be nouns, pronouns, phrases,
or clauses. If you can identify
the subject and verb in a sentence, then finding
the direct object—if one exists—is easy.
What is a Subject Complement?
• Don't mistake a direct object for a subject complement.
• Only action verbs can have direct objects.
• If the verb is linking, then the word that answers
the what? Or who? question is a subject complement.
• Examples:
• The space alien from the planet Zortek accidentally
locked his keys in his space ship.
• Alien = subject; locked = action verb. The space alien
locked what? His keys = direct object.
• The space alien was happy to find a spare key taped
under the wing.
• Alien = subject; was = linking verb. The space alien
was what? Happy = subject complement.
Bellwork – A Day – 9.10.14
p.248
• On a sheet of looseleaf paper, copy down the
following sentence and label each word’s part of
speech underneath the word.
As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried.
When finished, begin silently reading.
Bellwork – B Day – 9.11.14
p.248
• On a sheet of looseleaf paper, copy down the
following sentence and label each word’s part of
speech underneath the word.
As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried.
When finished, begin silently reading.
**If you would like to read your paragraph on “What is a Hero?” to the class,
you will earn 1 extra credit point.
Types of Sentences
Simple Sentence
– a sentence with one independent clause.
• I love simple sentences.
• Being an English teacher with a penchant for
syntactical complexity, I love to read simple
sentences upon getting up and before going to
bed.
– (Amazingly, it's still a simple sentence. I am piling on
phrase after phrase, but the sentence still contains
only one independent clause.)
Types of Sentences
Compound Sentence
– contains two or more independent clauses.
• Example: I love conjunctive adverbs, but my students
love each other.
• Sometimes a compound sentence contains more than
two independent clauses.
– I love conjunctive adverbs; my students love each other,
and we all love holidays.
• Sometimes longer linking words can be used.
– I can name several conjunctive adverbs; consequently, my
friends are impressed.
Types of Sentences
Complex Sentence
– a sentence that contains one independent clause
and one or more dependent clauses.
• Because life is complex, we need complex sentences.
• Because people know that I am an artist, they make
allowances for how I dress and what I say.
– (This sentence contains four dependent clauses. Note that
two of the dependent clauses are inside of and part of the
independent clause. Don't be alarmed. That happens all the
time.)
Types of Sentences
Compound-Complex sentence
– sentence contains two or more independent
clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
• Example: Because I am an English teacher, some
people expect me to speak perfectly, and other people
expect me to write perfectly.
Bellwork – A Day – 9.12.14
p.254
• On a sheet of looseleaf paper, copy down the
following sentence and label each word’s part of
speech underneath the word.
Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity.
When finished, begin silently reading.
**If you would like to read your paragraph on “What is a Hero?” to the class,
you will earn 1 extra credit point.
Bellwork – B Day – 9.15.14
p.254
• On a sheet of looseleaf paper, copy down the
following sentence and label each word’s part of
speech underneath the word.
Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity.
When finished, begin silently reading.
**If you would like to read your paragraph on “What is a Hero?” to the class,
you will earn 1 extra credit point.
The Gerund
• Recognize a gerund when you see one.
• Every gerund, without exception, ends in ing. Gerunds are not, however,
all that easy to identify. The problem is that all present participles also end
in ing. What is the difference?
• Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects, subject
complements, direct objects,indirect objects, and objects of
prepositions.
• Present participles, on the other hand, complete progressive verbs or act
as modifiers.
• Read these examples of gerunds:
• Since Francisco was five years old, swimming has been his passion.
– Swimming = subject of the verb has been.
• Francisco's first love is swimming.
– Swimming = subject complement of the verb is.
• Francisco enjoys swimming more than spending time with his
girlfriend Diana.
– Swimming = direct object of the verb enjoys.
The Gerund Phrase
•
Don't mistake a gerund phrase for a present participle phrase.
•
Gerund and present participle phrases are easy to confuse because they both begin with an ing word. The
difference is that a gerund phrase will always function as a noun while a present participle phrase describes
another word in the sentence.
•
Check out these examples:
• Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine will result in disaster.
–
•
Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine, Aamir saved $1.25 but had to tolerate
the curious stares of other laundry patrons as his machine bucked and rumbled with the heavy
load.
–
•
Hogging the middle of the bed = gerund phrase, the subject complement of the linking verbis.
Last night I had to sleep on the couch because I found my dog Floyd hogging the middle of the
bed.
–
•
Buttering toast with a fork = present participle phrase describing Bernard.
My dog's most annoying habit is hogging the middle of the bed.
–
•
Buttering toast with a fork = gerund phrase, the direct object of the verb hates.
Buttering toast with a fork, Bernard vowed that he would finally wash the week's worth of dirty
dishes piled in the sink.
–
•
Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine = present participle phrase describing Aamir.
Bernard hates buttering toast with a fork.
–
•
Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine = gerund phrase, the subject of the verb will result.
Hogging the middle of the bed = present participle phrase describing Floyd.
Types of Clauses
The Infinitive
The Preposition
•NAME
•DATE
•BLOCK