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Eureka High School Bands Final Exam Review Sheet Time Signatures The top number of a time signature tells how many beats are in a measure. The bottom number of a time signature tells what note value gets one count. If the bottom number is a “4,” a quarter note gets one count. If it is an “8,” the eighth note gets one count. If it is a “2,” the half note gets one count. Clefs Treble clef is for flute, oboe, clarinet, bass clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, French horn, mallets. Treble clef lines – E, G, B, D, F (Every Good Boy Does Fine) Treble clef spaces – F, A, C, E (the word “face”) Bass clef is for bassoon, trombone, baritone, tuba, and timpani. Bass clef lines – G, B, D, F, A (Great Big Dogs Fight Animals) Bass clef spaces – A, C, E, G (All Cows Eat Grass) Scales C major F major Bb major Eb major Ab major C F Bb Eb Ab D G C F Bb E A D G C F Bb Eb Ab Db G C F Bb Eb A D G C F B E A D G C F Bb Eb Ab Instrument Families Brass – trumpet, French horn, trombone, baritone, tuba. All are made of brass, covered by lacquer. They use a mouthpiece in which the musician “buzzes” to create the tone. They change notes by changing air speed to get higher and lower notes and using valves or a slide to change the length of the instrument. Woodwinds – piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, bassoon, clarinet, bass clarinet, saxophones. Uses a series of keys along the length of the instrument to change notes. Tone is created in one of three ways: 1) flute/piccolo – Blow across the opening in the mouthplate. 2) clarinets and saxophones – Blow into a mouthpiece, past a reed held in place by a ligature. 3) oboe, Engligh horn, bassoon – Blow into a double reed which is two reeds held together by a wrapping. Percussion – All instruments which are struck with sticks, mallets, hands or each other to create the tone. Includes: 1) All varieties of drums – snare drum, toms, bass drum, timpani, bongos, congas, etc. 2) Mallet keyboards – orchestra bells, xylophone, vibraphone, marimba, chimes 3) Idiophones (the entire instrument is struck to create the tone) – cymbals, gong, triangle, wood block, etc. Musical Terminology 1. Accent - Emphasize the note 2. Allegro - Quickly 3. Andante - Moderately slow 4. Articulation - How a note is started or ended 5. C - Common time (4/4) 6. Chromatic Scale - A scale of half steps 7. Crescendo - Gradually get louder 8. D.C. – da capo, go back to the beginning 9. D.S. al Fine – dal segno, back to the sign 10. Decrescendo - Gradually get softer 11. Dynamics - The volume of music 12. Fermata - Hold until the cut off 13. Legato - Smooth and connected 14. Marcato - Marked or accented style 15. Sforzando - Heavily accented 16. Sfzp - Heavy accent, then immediately soft 17. Slur - Change notes without tonguing 18. Staccato - Detached 19. Staff – The lines and spaces that music is written on; five lines and four spaces 20. Tie - Adds two note valuesof the same pitch together Elements of Musical Performance Tone – the quality of sound (i.e. dark, full, warm). This is affected by embouchure and air on a wind instrument. Rhythm – the organization of sound in time, counting with the beat Intonation – the quality of playing in tune Precision – the ability to start and end notes together Articulation – the way notes are started and ended Balance – an equal representation of sound (i.e. bass vs. treble, pyramid of sound) Blend – the quality of tones sounding similar Note Accuracy – playing the correct pitch Posture – the way a musician holds his body position to create the best sound Tempo – the ability to maintain a steady beat Phrasing – the way a musician expresses a complete musical thought Style – the general way a musician interprets notes and phrases for a particular song Dynamics – the range of volume Marching Band Marching bands use markings on the football field for staging. There are three types of markings: 1) Yard lines – Lines that run the width of the field, 5 yards apart. The 50 yard line is in the middle, and they decrease in intervals of 5 on each side of the 50 yard line. 2) Hash marks – Short dashes that divide the width of the high school football field into thirds. 3) Sidelines – Lines that run the length of the field that indicate “out of bounds.” Marching bands typically use the sideline closest to the home audience, which we refer to as the front sideline.