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Transcript
IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ
Για παραπομπή :
Συγγραφή :
Keaveney Arthur
Keaveney Arthur , "Lucullus", Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Κωνσταντινούπολη
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10154>
Lucullus
Περίληψη :
Lucullus was a Roman general and politician. He served as governor of Cilicia and Asia (74 BC) as well as governor of Pontus and Bithynia (74-67
BC). In 59 B.C. Lucullus withdrew from the political scene.
Άλλα Ονόματα
Lucius Licinius Lucullus
Τόπος και Χρόνος Γέννησης
118 or 117 BC
Τόπος και Χρόνος Θανάτου
mid December 57 / mid January 56 BC
Κύρια Ιδιότητα
Roman general and statesman
1. Birth – Family - Education
Lucius Licinius Lucullus was born either in 118 or 117 B.C. to a plebian family. His first known ancestor was L. Licinius Lucullus
who was an aedile in 202 B.C. His grandfather, L. Licinius Lucullus, was the first member of the family to reach the consulship (151
B.C.) and thus confer nobility on the family. He gained an bad reputation for his conduct of war in Spain. His son L. Licinius Lucullus
was praetor in 104 B.C. and he too had a dubious reputation because of his conduct in the second Sicilian slave war. As a young
man, Lucullus himself devoted a good deal of time to forensic oratory but his ultimate goal was a military career.
2. Private and Family Life
Somewhere between 76 and 74 B.C. Lucullus married Claudia from the family of the Claudii Pulchri. The marriage was not happy
and ended in a divorce on the grounds of the wife’s incest. A second marriage to Servillia (in the 60’s B.C.), niece of Cato, was
equally unhappy and also ended in a divorce.
3. Career
Lucullus started his military service in 89 B.C. as a tribune during the social war. In the next year (88 B.C.) he became quaestor to
Sulla and was the only officer not to desert him when he marched to Rome. Then the pair set off to prosecute the First Mithridatic
War. Lucullus was first put in charge of finances but then was despatched to Africa and Asia Minor in order to raise a fleet for Sulla
(86-85 B.C.).
When Sulla departed for Rome in 84 B.C., Lucullus remained in Asia as quaestor to Sulla's successor Licinius Murena. The main
task of Lucullus was to collect the indemnity which Sulla had imposed on the Asiatics in punishment for taking the side of Mithridates
VI. On his return to Rome, Lucullus became aedile for 79 B.C. The very next year (78), he became praetor. This was a signal
honour because normally two years had to elapse between offices. The governorship of Africa then followed and after that the
consulship of 74 B.C.
The year of Lucullus consulship also saw the beginning of the Third Mithridatic War and, by skillful political manoeuvres, he obtained
the provinces of Asia and Cilicia and with them the command against the king. His first act on reaching Asia was to free his colleague
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IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ
Για παραπομπή :
Συγγραφή :
Keaveney Arthur
Keaveney Arthur , "Lucullus", Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Κωνσταντινούπολη
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10154>
Lucullus
C. Aurelius Cotta (consul 74 B.C.) from a siege at Chalcedon in Bithynia (Üskudar) by Mithridates VI. The king then put Cyzicus
(Kapidagi) under siege but was in turn besieged by Lucullus who forced him to flee early in 73 B.C. The remaining Pontic garrisons
were cleared from Asia and the grip of the Pontic navy on the Aegean was broken. The invasion of the Kingdom of Pontus then
followed. The year 72 B.C. was spent in pursuing Mithridates and although Lucullus managed to inflict a defeat on him at Cabira in
Pontus (Niksar) the king proved elusive finally taking refuge (71 B.C.) with his son-in-law Tigranes I of Armenia.
Most of 70 B.C. was taken up by Lucullus’ administration of Asia. He levied taxes to pay for the province’s defence but more
notably took several steps to relieve the debt crisis of the cities. To meet the financial penalties Sulla imposed on them, these cities
had borrowed heavily and were now in debt to the Roman publicans (moneylenders). The measures taken by Lucullus were salutary
and the debt was cleared within four years. In 69 B.C., when Tigranes would not yield Mithridates, Lucullus invaded Armenia and
destroyed its capital Tigranocerta (Sivan).
The following year witnessed the beginning of Lucullus’ downfall. His refoms in Asia had alienated the publicans and they now
contrived to have Asia and Cilicia removed from his command.1 Nevertheless, Lucullus soldiered on in Armenia only to witness a
resurgence in the fortunes of Mithridates and the beginning of mutinies of his own soldiers army who resented the long campaigns.
Mithridates defeated Lucullus’ legate at Zela in 67 B.C. and handed him over to A. Glaibro through the lex Gabinia. A full-scale
mutiny followed in 67 B.C. and at the same time the remaining provinces of Lucullus, Bithynia and Pontus, were taken away from
him. Finally, the lex Manilia of 66 B.C. deprived him of his command and handed it over to Pompey. He spent the next three years
(66-63 B.C.) outside of Rome awaiting a triumph which the machinations of a tribune deprived him of. This period of inactivity seems
to have led to a radical reappraisal of his position.
4. Ideology
From the very start of his career, Lucullus could be described as a Sullan fan and became a staunch defender of the system the
dictator had established. This was the core of his political beliefs. By this time, however, the Sullan system had failed and this,
together with the personal inactivity mentioned above, made Lucullus to scale down the extent of his involvement in politics. 2 He still
made significant interventions as, for instance in 60 B.C., when he helped block the ratification of Pompey’s eastern arrangements, or
attempted unsuccessfully in 59 B.C. to block the legislative programme of Julius Caesar. A good deal of his time was, however,
dedicated to building and lavishly adorning a series of villas where he was said to dine on a sumptuous scale. 3
5. Death
Lucullus died sometime between December 57 and January 56 B.C., possibly as a result of Alzheimer’s disease.
6. Evaluation and Judgements
Lucullus’ contemporaries viewed him as a fine soldier who in later life had become a fatty degenerate, wasting his time in idling and
trifling. He was not, of course, the only one to behave thus and fall under this opprobium which is rooted in the Roman character. In
essence, the Romans, a practical people, thought in terms of the utility of a building and held non-practical adornments in suspicion.
This tendency was further reinforced by their habitual viewing of luxury in moralising terms. Once fixed this viewpoint prevailed
through antiquity. After that Lucullus tends to be somewhat neglected standing, as he does in the shadow of such figures as Caesar
and Pompey but the pejorative view does persist in such expressions as ‘Lucullan banquets’ and in some modern historians. The
most recent scholarship is more sympathetic and sees in Lucullus’ building activities the result of a genuine aesthetic impulse. In
general, the verdict on Lucullus must be a mixed one. He is acknowledged to be a great soldier who nevertheless failed to bring his
most important campaign to a successful conclusion. As a politician he can be regarded as equally unsuccessful. Having failed to
defend the Sullan constitution he chose to play a secondary role in the political life of his time.
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IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ
Για παραπομπή :
Συγγραφή :
Keaveney Arthur
Keaveney Arthur , "Lucullus", Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Κωνσταντινούπολη
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10154>
Lucullus
1. According to Kallet-Marx, the public complaints against Lucullus were for his needless prolonging of the war to satisfy his private greed for power
and booty. In addition, he proposes that by making Cilicia consular, the aim of the senate was not to deprive Lucullus of his power but to give a more
firm administration to the province, since Lucullus was in Armenia. Kallet-Marx, R., Hegemony to Empire. The Development of the Roman Imperium in
the East from 148 to 62 B.C., Hellenistic Culture and Society 15 (1996) pp.313-315. Contra Keaveney, A., Lucullus – a Life (London 1992) pp.120-122.
2. Hillman, T.P., “When did Lucullus retire ?”, Historia 42 (1993) pp.211-228.
3. Broise, H., Jolivet, V., Recherches sur les jardins de Lucullus, in L’Urbs. Espace urbain et histoire. 1 er s. av. J. C. – 3 em s. ap. J. C. Actes du
colloque International, Rome, 8-12 mai 1985 (Rome 1987) pp.747-761. Kaster, G., Die Gärten des Lucullus. Entwicklung und Bedeutung der
Bebauung des Pincio – Hügels in Rom (Diss. Techische Universität München 1974). Jolivet, V., Broise, H., “Des jardins de Lucullus au Palais des
Pincii. Recherches de l’Ecole française de Rome sur le versant ccidental du Pincio”, RA (1994) pp.188-198.
Βιβλιογραφία :
Kallet-Marx R., Hegemony to Empire. The Development of the Roman Imperium in the East from 148
to 62 B.C., Berkeley 1995, Hellenistic Culture and Society 15
Keaveney A.C., Lucullus. A Life, London – New York 1992
Gruen E.S., The Last Generation of the Roman Republic, California 1974
Antonelli G., Lucullo, Rome 1989
Appian, Roman History: The Mithridatic Wars 2, H. White (ed.), The Mithridatic Wars, The Loeb Classical
Library, London – New York 1912
Ballesteros-Pastor L., "La relación de Lúculo con los Partos durante la tercera guerra mithridática", Blázquez,
J.M. (ed.), Aspectos de la Sociedad Romana del Bajo imperio en las cartas de San Jeronimo. Homenaje
al Profesor Presedo, Sevilla 1994, Filosofia y Letras, 121-129
Cicero, Academica, Rackham H. (ed.), The Loeb Classical Library, London – Cambridge, Massachusetts
1956
Eckhardt K., "Die armeinischen Feldzüge des Lukullus I", Klio, 9, 1909, 400-412
Eckhardt K., "Die armeinischen Feldzüge des Lukullus II, III", Klio, 10, 1910, 72-115, 192-231
Hillman T.P., "The alleged inimicitiae of Pompeius and Lucullus 78-74", CPh, 86, 1991, 315-318
Hillman T.P., "Hodie apud Lucullum Pompeius cenat. Neglected history at Plutarch, Lucullus 41.4-7", Deroux,
C. (ed.), Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History 7, Brussels 1994, 190-201
Jolivet V., "Xerxes Togatus: Lucullus en Campanie", MEFRA, 99.2, 1987, 875-904
Gelzer Μ., "Lucius Licinius Lucullus", RE 8.1, 376-414
Tatum W.J., "Lucullus and Clodius at Nisibis. Plutarch, Lucullus 33-34", Athenaeum, 79, 1991, 569-579
Van Ooteghem J., Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Brussels 1959
Hillman T.P., "When did Lucullus retire?", Historia, 42, 1993, 211-228
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IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ
Για παραπομπή :
Συγγραφή :
Keaveney Arthur
Keaveney Arthur , "Lucullus", Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Κωνσταντινούπολη
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10154>
Lucullus
Kaster G., Die Gärten des Lucullus. Entwicklung und Bedeutung der Bebauung des Pincio - Hügels in
Rom, München (Diss. Technische Universitä) 1974
Jolivet V., Broise H, "Des jardins de Lucullus au Palais des Pincii. Recherches de l’Ecole francaise de Rome
sur le versant occidental du Pincio", RA, 1994, 188-198
Jolivet V., Broise H, "Recherches sur les jardins de Lucullus, in L’Urbs. Espace urbain et histoire. 1er s. av. J.
C. - 3em s. ap. J. C.,", Actes du colloque International, Rome, 8-12 Μai 1985, Rome 1987, 747-761
Δικτυογραφία :
Plutarch • Life of Lucullus
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Lucullus*.html
Γλωσσάριo :
agoranomos, the
Civil official responsible for the maintenance of the market and the price balance of foods.
consul, -lis
An official of the Roman state. In the period of the Republic, it was the highest military and political office: two consuls were elected each year. The
consular office survived into the Imperial period (and further into the early Byzantine period), becoming a honorary post.
lex Manilia
A law passed in Rome in 66 B.C., on the initiative of Gaius Manilius. The law mandated that Pompey took command of the war against
Mithridates instead of Lucullus.
praetor
Political and juridical magistrate of the Roman Republic and the late Roman Empire. The title was originally borne by two magistrates who were
chosen annually to serve as eponymous heads of the state, but the number of praetors increased within the years. The title was retained with
intervals in the Early Byzantine Period. The office appeared again in the mid-9th cent. and denoted the governor of an administration unit of the
empire. Hierarchically, the praetor was inferior to the strategos of the theme.
triumph
The organising of festivities in Constantinople in order to celebrate the return of the emperor (or a military commander) from a victorious
expedition. It included a military parade, lead by the emperor and his generals, followed by prisoners and plunder brought back from
occupied territories, as well as games at the Hippodrome. The people of the capital (mainly the demes) usually participated in overwhelming
numbers and with great enthusiasm.
Πηγές
Plutarch, Lucullus
Χρονολόγιο
118 (possibly 117) BC: Lucullus was born.
89 BC: Military tribune.
88-80 BC: Quaestor.
79 BC: Aedile.
78 BC: Praetor.
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IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ
Για παραπομπή :
Συγγραφή :
Keaveney Arthur
Keaveney Arthur , "Lucullus", Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Κωνσταντινούπολη
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10154>
Lucullus
77 BC: Governor of Africa.
74 BC: Consul, governor Cilicia.
74-67 BC: Command of the war against Mithridates VI with command of the Roman provinces of Cilicia, Asia, Pontus and Bithynia.
66 BC: He returns to Rome.
63 BC: He holds a triumph.
63–59 BC: Limited political activity in Rome.
59 BC: He retires from all political activities.
Mid. December 57– mid January 56 BC: Lucullus dies.
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