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Name: ________________________________ Hour _______
Chapter 13 Reading Guide:
European Middle Ages
Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (P. 353)
1. What were the Middle Ages?
Invasions of Western Europe
2. Germanic invaders caused several changes which altered the economy, government and culture of
the declining Roman Empire. Describe the impact of each of the following:
a. Disruption of trade:
b. Downfall of cities:
c. Population shifts:
d. Decline of learning:
e. Loss of a common language:
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
3. What was the difference between Roman society and Germanic communities concerning the
concept of government?
4. Who was Clovis and how did he use Christianity with his military?
Germans Adopt Christianity
5. What is a monastery? What did a person do at a monastery?
6. How were monasteries tied to education?
7. Describe the changes Gregory I made to the papacy (role of the pope).
An Empire Evolves
8. What is a “mayor of the palace?”
9. Describe Charles Martel’s power (what did he do?).
10. What was the Carolingian Dynasty? How did they get their power?
11. How did Charlemagne build such a great empire?
Section 2: Feudalism in Europe (P. 358)
Invaders Attack Western Europe
12. Where were the Vikings from?
Describe the Viking raids:
13. Who were the Magyars and what did they do?
14. What was the goal of the Muslim attackers?
15. What was the result of the attacks by the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims?
A New Social Order: Feudalism
16. What is feudalism?
Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism
17. Peasants paid a high price to work on the Manor. List 5 details that prove this:
Section 3: The Age of Chivalry (P. 365)
Knights: Warriors on Horseback
18. How did the saddle and stirrups help change the way warfare was conducted in Europe?
19. How did feudal lords raise private armies? What was the obligation of a knight to a lord?
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry
20. Define Chivalry? How did Chivalry affect a knight’s daily life (give examples)?
21. What was a troubadour? What did he/she typically write about?
22. What was life like for women in feudal society?
Peasant Women
Section 4: The Power of the Church (P. 370)
The Far Reaching Authority of the Church
23. What did the pope and emperors disagree on?
24. How did religion work as a unifying force?
25. What was canon law?
What were the two harshest punishments handed down from the church (describe them)?
The Church and the Holy Roman Empire
26. How did Otto I use the church to become so powerful?
27. What was the Holy Roman Empire?
The Emperor Clashes with the Pope
28. What was lay investiture?
29. What was the Showdown at Canossa and the Concordat of Worms?
Disorder in the Empire
30. What caused disorder in the empire of Frederick I?
How was Frederick I defeated?
31. Why were the German states unable to unify during the middle ages?
Name __________________________________ Hour ____
Chapter 14 Reading Guide
The Formation of Western Europe
Section 1: Church Reform and the Crusades (P. 379)
The Age of Faith
32. What three issues worried reformers about religion during this time period?
33. What was the Curia and what were its duties?
34. What were tithes used for?
The Crusades
35. Who and what initiated the Crusades or “__________ ___________?”
36. List four goals of the Crusades?
37. What held the Crusaders back during the First Crusade?
38. What was the outcome of the First Crusade?
39. What happened in the Second Crusade?
40. What agreement was reached at the conclusion of the bout?
41. Summarize the Third Crusade:
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
42. Describe the outcome of the Children’s Crusade:
43. What was the inquisition?
-Who was targeted?
-What happened to those suspected of heresy?
Effects of the Crusades
44. List four effects of the Crusades:
Section 2: Changes in Medieval Society (P. 387)
A Growing Food Supply
45. What was a major factor in the increased production of food between 800-1200?
46. Why did farmers switch from oxen to the horse?
47. Explain how the three field system worked:
The Guilds
48. What were guilds and why were they beneficial?
Commercial Revolution
49. What was the Commercial Revolution?
50. What advancement did the “Muslim Connection” bring to Western Europe?
Section 3: England and France Develop (P. 393)
England Absorbs Waves of Invaders
51. What was going on in England in the 800s?
52. Who claimed the crown after Edward died?
England’s Evolving Government
53. What were the goals of English Kings during this time period?
54. What were the duties of the royal courts of justice?
55. What is Common Law- Then and Now?
56. What was the Magna Carta?
-Why was it drawn up?
Capetian Dynasty Rules France
57. Who was Hugh Capet?
58. Why did the Capetians do so well
59. Who was the most powerful of this line of kings? How old was he when he took the throne?
60. Who did this young king have great success over?
61. What honor was given to Henry’s grandson Louis IX?
62. What government body did he create?
63. What was the Estate’s General? What were the different estates?
Section 4: The Hundred Years War (P. 398)
A Church Divided
64. What happened to papal authority? Explain how this happened?
65. What huge change was made under Clement V?
66. What was the Great Schism?
67. How was this problem resolved?
The Bubonic Plague Strikes
68. How was the plague spread?
69. List four effects of the plague:
The Hundred Years’ War
70. What was the Hundred Years War?
71. What was Joan of Arc’s goal?
-What happened to her?
72. List three outcomes of the Hundred Years’ War: