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Week 5
The Hudaybiyah treaty
Victory at Khaybar
Battle of Mutah
Opening of Makkah
Tabuk expedition
The Farewell Hajj
Death of the Messenger (saw)
It was now 6 years since the Hijrah
 The Prophet (saw) had a dream that
the Muslims would go to Makkah for
 1,400 Muslims went for Umrah,
 When the Quraysh heard this they
sent an army headed by Khalid ibn al
Waleed to stop the Muslims.
The Messenger (saw) avoided the army
by leading the Muslims through mountain
When they reached Hudaybiyah, south of
Makkah, the Prophet’s (saw) camel
refused to go further.
The Muslims camped that night at
The water springs were almost dry; by
the will of Allah, the Prophet (saw) caused
fresh water to spring up for the Muslims.
man was sent to negotiate with
Quraysh but they killed his camel
and he managed to escape back.
 Then Uthman ibn Affan, who had
been one of the greatest men of
Quraysh, was sent.
 He was a long time, and there was
a rumour that he had been killed.
The Prophet (saw) gathered the Muslims
under a tree and they pledged to stay
with him and to fight to the death if
necessary, even though they had no
arms, shields, or horses.
Just after that, Uthman appeared and he
was safe.
Allah mentioned in the Qur'an that He
was pleased with the believers and their
pledge under the tree.
Soon after this, official messengers
came from Quraysh and held talks
with the Muslims.
The Hudaybiyah treaty was made
with the following conditions:
Muslims would return to Madinah
and not make Umrah.
Muslims can come for 3 days next
year to make Umrah.
When they come to Makkah, Muslims
cannot carry arms.
There will be peace for 10 years and
people can travel without fear.
5. If Makkans took refuge in Madinah,
they must be returned if Quraysh
wanted. If Muslims take refuge in
Makkah, they do not have to be
6. If there is war between other tribes,
Quraysh and the Muslims stay neutral.
7. The Muslims and Quraysh can make
treaties with other Arab tribes.
The Muslims felt very disheartened by this
treaty, but Allah revealed:
“Indeed, We have given you a
manifest victory, that Allah may
forgive your sins of the past and
future, and complete His favour on
you and guide you to the straight
path, and that Allah may help you
with strong help”
(trans. 48:1-3)
The Hudaybiyah treaty allowed the
Muslims to preach Islam freely.
Thousands of people became Muslim
after this, including Khalid ibn al
Waleed and Amr ibn al As.
The Prophet (saw) decided that the time
had come to spread the message to other
countries by sending letters to their rulers.
The Negus of Abyssinia
He replied that he was already a Muslim and
he agreed that the Muslims living there
could return to be with the Prophet (saw).
Muqawqis of Egypt
He responded in a friendly manner but was
afraid he would lose his power if he
became Muslim. He sent many gifts back.
Heraclius of Rome
He said that he knew Muhammad (saw) was
a true Prophet but he feared his people
would turn against him.
He sent a letter to the Bishop who said the
shahadah and accepted Islam. The people
beat the Bishop to death.
Heraclius feared this would happen to him,
so did not become Muslim and sent a
letter to the Prophet (saw).
Chosroes Parvez of Persia
He became angry and tore his letter into
pieces. The Prophet (saw) heard this and
said, “May Allah tear his kingdom into
pieces”. A few days later he was killed by
his son, and the kingdom declined until it
was opened to Islam during the time of
Umar (ra).
Mundhir, King of Bahrain
He responded well and accepted Islam.
The Jews who had been expelled
from Madinah went to live in
Khaybar, a rich town in Arabia.
Now they gathered forces and the
Banu Ghatafan helped them.
The Muslims marched against
Khaybar with 1,500 men.
It was difficult to penetrate the great
fortress, but by the will of Allah,
they succeeded.
An agreement was made with the
Jews who pleaded with the
Prophet (saw) not to expel them.
One year had passed since Hudaybiyah
and the Prophet (saw) set out for
Makkah with thousands of unarmed
The performed the rites of Umrah, and
were overjoyed to be able to visit
Makkah again. The Ansar went with
Three months later, the Prophet (saw)
sent Harith ibn Umayr with a letter to
Shurahbil, chief of Busra, inviting him
to Islam. He killed Harith.
The Prophet (saw) then sent an army of
3,000 men to Busra, led by Zayd ibn
al Haritha.
The enemy gathered a huge force of
200,000 men.
The Battle of Mu’tah
The battle was extremely fierce. Zayd ibn
Harithah, Ja’far ibn Abi Talib, and Abdullah
ibn Rawahah all held the standard but died
Then Khalid ibn al Waleed took the banner
with fearless courage.
He changed the position of the army and
was very clever in his plans.
The Romans stopped attacking and the
Muslims were able to return to Madinah.
Banu Bakr
Banu Khuza’a
The Quraysh secretly helped Banu Bakr to
kill some of Banu Khuza’a.
The Quraysh refused to pay compensation
to the Khuza’a or withdraw support for
Banu Bakr.
Now the treaty of Hudaybiyah had been
On 20th Ramadhan, 8AH, 10,000 Muslims
marched on Makkah.
They did not want power or money, just to
establish worship of Allah alone.
They camped outside Makkah, and Abbas
and Abu Sufyan came and accepted
The Muslims were able to open Makkah
without bloodshed, apart from one small
group that fought the Muslims.
The Muslims from Makkah were able to
return to their own homes and families.
The Prophet remained praying in a tent,
then went out and made tawaf.
He erased the images from the inside of
the kaba and broke the idols.
Makkah became a united city of Islam.
Hawazin and Thaqif were afraid of the
Muslims’ power. They made an
agreement to destroy the Muslims.
They met the Muslims at the Battle of
Hunayn. The Muslims felt confident as
they had a huge army now.
The Muslims were ambushed by the
enemy on a narrow, rocky path.
The Muslims were terrified and many
Only 600, true in faith, remained.
Allah gave them victory.
Shortly afterwards, the Hawazin and
Thaqif accepted Islam.
The Prophet (saw) returned to Madinah
with the Ansar.
Islam began to spread all over Arabia.
The Battle of Tabuk
The Roman Empire could not tolerate the
increasing power of the Muslims.
They decided to attack.
The Messenger (saw) summoned all
Muslims to come and defend Islam.
It was extremely hot. The journey was
very long.
It was also time for the crops to be
The Romans were extremely fearsome
However many Muslims did all they could
to help this battle.
Umar (ra) gave half his wealth for the
jihad, and Abu Bakr (ra) gave everything
he had.
An army of 30,000 men was assembled.
The hypocrites made excuses and did not
join in the battle.
The march was so hard and it was so hot
that some Muslims turned back to
Finally, the army ran out of water.
The Prophet (saw) prayed to Allah, and
rain came pouring from the sky.
The Muslims camped at Tabuk.
The Roman were afraid at the strength of
their army and retreated.
Three Muslims who were not
hypocrites, but were weak, stayed
in Madinah without an excuse.
They were excluded from the
They repented to Allah and Allah
forgave them.
The hypocrites made excuses and
did not repent.
Urwa ibn Masud was a leader of Thaqif,
the tribe from Ta’if.
He became Muslim and went back to
bring his people to Islam.
The next day he gave the adhan for Fajr.
The people killed him, but in his last
breath, he said, “This is a gift with
which Allah has honoured me and a
martyrdom which Allah has led me to”
Later, Thaqif all became Muslim.
It was 10 AH and the month of Hajj
came again.
The Messenger (saw) completed the Hajj
and delivered his farewell speech on
the Mount of Rahma above the plain of
He ended by saying,
“Be my witness O Allah. Have I conveyed
Your message to Your people?”
And the people answered “Yes you have!
Allah be witness!”
Allah revealed,
“This day I have perfected your religion
for you, completed My favour upon you
and have chosen Islam as Your
(trans. 5:3)
When Abu Bakr heard this, he knew that
the mission of the Prophet (saw) was
completed and that his life was soon to
come to a close.
The Prophet (saw) had got ready an
army to go to Syria against the
Romans. He placed Usama ibn Zayd,
who was 19 or 20, in charge.
But just then the Prophet (saw)
became seriously ill.
Between his fevers, he would go to
lead the prayers at the masjid.
As the Prophet (saw) became weaker he
asked Abu Bakr to lead the prayers.
Aisha said that her father would cry so
much when reading Quran, he could
not lead the prayers.
Once the Prophet (saw) heard Umar (ra)
leading the prayer and he asked,
“Where is Abu Bakr?”
The Prophet (saw) instructed that all his
possessions be given away, so he did
not meet his Lord owning anything.
On his last day, he was able to go to the
masjid, but signalled to Abu Bakr to
continue leading the prayer.
As his fever increased, he was nursed by
Aisha and passed away on her lap. His
last words were;
“Nay, the eternal companion in Paradise”
The Muslims heard the sound of crying and
found it hard to accept what could have
Umar (ra) stood with his sword saying that
the Prophet (saw) has not died.
Abu Bakr (ra) went out to meet the people,
and said, “He who worshipped Muhammad,
let him know that Muhammad is dead. But
He who worships Allah, let him know Allah
is alive and never dies”
Tears of sorrow and grief began to flow from
the Muslims at their loss.
O Allah! Make us of those who guide and are
rightly guided, and keep us on the path of
your Messenger (saw) until we meet him,