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Transcript
11.3 Other Mechanisms of Evolution
KEY CONCEPT
Natural selection is not the only mechanism through
which populations evolve.
11.3 Other Mechanisms of Evolution
Definition: Gene flow is the movement of alleles between
populations.
• How it works: Gene flow
occurs when
individuals join new
populations and
reproduce.
• Lots of Gene flow results
in neighboring
populations that are
similar.
• Limited gene flow results
in the chance that two
populations will evolve
into different species.
bald eagle migration
11.3 Other Mechanisms of Evolution
Definition: Genetic drift is a change in allele frequencies
due to chance or catastrophe.
• How it works: Causes a loss of genetic diversity.
In small populations.
• A bottleneck effect:
– It occurs when an event
drastically reduces
population size.
11.3 Other Mechanisms of Evolution
• The founding of a small population can lead to genetic drift.
– It occurs when a few individuals start a new population.
– The founder effect is genetic drift that occurs after start
of new population.
11.3 Other Mechanisms of Evolution
• Genetic drift has negative effects on a population.
– less likely to have some individuals that can adapt
– harmful alleles can become more common due to
chance
11.3 Other Mechanisms of Evolution
Definition: Sexual selection occurs when certain traits
increase mating success.
• How it works:
– males produce many
sperm continuously;
females have fewer
eggs
11.3 Other Mechanisms of Evolution
• There are two types of sexual selection.
– intrasexual selection: competition among males
– intersexual selection: males display certain traits to
females