Temporal Variation Can Facilitate Niche Evolution in Harsh
... temporal variation can facilitate adaptive evolution in sinks, permitting niche evolution, particularly for slow or autocorrelated variation. Such patterns of temporal variation may particularly pertain
to sinks caused by biotic interactions (e.g., predation). Our results
are relevant to the evoluti ...
... of the Pacific has been standard practice for foreigners
and Pacific Islanders for as long as anyone knows. It has
been said that coastal people are taller and more intelligent than inland “bush” people, New Zealanders more
savage than Tahitians, Samoans more savage than Tongans, and so on. One typi ...
What It Means to Be 98% Chimpanzee : Apes, People, and Their
... enous peoples didn’t need science to tell them of that creature’s general similarities to them.
The general estimate, which there is no good reason to doubt at
present, is that about seven million years ago Homo, Pan, and Gorilla
all comprised a single species. That species lived in Africa (which i ...
Molecular Perspectives on the Bantu Expansion
... the Bantu expansion has been proposed in diﬀerent versions and the contents
of the cultural package that accompanied the language spread vary from one
proposal to another. In most models, metallurgy or grain cultivation are still
absent during the ﬁrst expansions through the equatorial rainforest, a ...
Migration and colonization in human microevolution
... access to resources in time of need. Such marital systems might be expected
to occur in the same contexts that non-marital migration would be favored;
that is, where resources vary greatly in time and space (see Chapter 2 for
Costs and benefits relating to mating dispersal can be mea ...
slowly switching between environments facilitates reverse evolution
... whether such adaptations can be reversed by returning the population to an ancestral environment. Such evolutionary reversals
have been observed in both natural and laboratory populations. However, the factors that determine the reversibility of evolution are still under debate. The time scales of e ...
Nonadaptive processes in primate and human evolution
... which have effective population sizes an order of magnitude
larger than mammal species (1–2 million; see Eyre-Walker
et al., 2002), they provide a useful contrast for studying the
evolutionary effects of differences in population size.
A reduction in Ne in the evolution of primates and
more so in th ...
Quantitative trait locus dissection in congenic strains of the Goto
... conservation of synteny homology between the Nidd/gk2 region and human chromosome 1q21–24 (3), which shows evidence of replicated linkage to T2DM in at least eight populations, including European Americans (7), French whites (34),
the UK Warren 2 repository (37), Pima Indians (17), and
Chinese (38). ...
curt stern - National Academy of Sciences
... tern there are singularities, to which developing cells respond
according to their genetic competences. Much of his later
work on this subject, well summarized in 1978 by his colleague and collaborator Dr. C. Tokunaga, was directed toward denning, largely through the use of genetic mosaics,
the natu ...
Sex, Ancestral, and Pattern Type Variation of
... analogy for the duplication of the entire process of biological formation of minutiae on two pieces of skin making them indistinguishable.
Because of the permanence and uniqueness of minutiae orientation, these traits have been utilized in several systems establishing identification on a comparison
Running head: The evolutionary genetics of personality
... basic ingredients for biological evolution. The other half is natural selection, which is the
differential reproduction of the resulting phenotypes (Darwin, 1859). Any mutation that affects
the phenotype is potentially visible to natural selection, though to varying degrees. Of course,
those rare mu ...
МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОХОРОНИ ЗДОРОВ`Я УКРАЇНИ
... pathology, investigation of "new" common nosological forms of inherited diseases.
Since training in medical genetics is carried out during the 9th and 10th semesters of the fifth year
of study the unified program for Medical Genetics in Ukrainian higher education institutions of the III
and IV accre ...
Dynamics of Adaptive Introgression from Archaic to Modern Humans
... exclude archaic human genetic survival. The present evidence indicates that many “archaic” alleles may represent relicts of African archaics, and that some “archaic” variants both inside and outside of Africa have attained
relatively high frequencies. Both observations may be surprising under the hy ...
Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis
... The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) first licensed PGS in 2002,
and the first reported UK birth following the use of this technique was in 2003.
However, there is continuing disagreement over the utility and efficacy of PGS, with
critics saying that its benefits ...
... inferiority was natural and ineradicable. They also argued in favour the biological
basis of culture, encouraging the view that apartheid’s Bantustans were the natural
fulfilment of underlying cultural and ethnic differences. This idea was picked up and
developed in the thinking of leading volkekund ...
... - Are the trait frequencies observed consistent with the known geographic distribution of that trait?
The degree of fluctuating asymmetry will also be briefly stated. It is hoped that the data obtained can
contribute to the non-metric trait record for the period and region, and this paper is therefo ...
Incidence Of Color Blindness Among Some Endogamous Groups Of
... genetic marker to study human diversity .The fact that
color blindness is so much more prevalent among men
implies that, like hemophilia, it is carried on the X
chromosome, of which men have only one copy (As in
hemophilia, women are protected because they have two X
chromosomes a normal gene on one ...
The Concept of Race in Contemporary Anthropology
... What is race? First of all, “race” is a word, and like many words it has a variety of meanings.
Some of these occur frequently in everyday life, as we talk about “the human race” or about
American “race relations.” Other meanings are used in government offices and forms, as when
Americans note which ...
... steps in understanding variability of mankind were held in the framework of
typological approach that was widespread till mid XX century. New genetic
methods and studies of such scientists as R. Lewontin have played the key role in
the change of paradigm. The new approach proposed denial of races b ...
Lapita People: an introductory context for
... genetic materials for a sufficient length of time to be more
like each other than they are like groups outside this
geographic area. It does not really help in establishing the
origins of the basic populations which have contributed to
its present makeup, for these may be the result of a long and
Evolution of the human pygmy phenotype
... trade for cultivated goods), given the food limitations discussed above [14–17]. If not, then these groups might have
originally inhabited rainforest-edge environments, where
food resources are generally more stable, before being displaced to deeper forest habitats by the farming populations
with wh ...
BIO160 - IRIS - Lake Land College
... At the end of this chapter, students should have an understanding of:
a. the role of mutation in generating genetic diversity.
b. the effects of drift and selection on changing gene frequencies.
c. the effects of human activities such as migration, mate selection, and diet on
d. ge ...
CHILL COMA ASSAY AND EVOLUTION INVESTIGATION
... confer an advantage in response to environmental pressures survive and reproduce more frequently
than those with less favorable traits. This is known as natural selection and is one of the 5 mechanisms of
evolutionary change. The following is a summary of the processes that drive evolution:
First we ...
Guidelines for the appropriate use of genetic tests in
... many genetic anomalies have been recognised as clinically
relevant, both in determining male infertility and as risk
factors of transmission by ART. These defects include
chromosomal aberrations and specific gene mutations. In
addition, other gene mutations (ie, b-subunit of LH, FSH, FSH
and LH rece ...
... • Alleles differ in frequency between people and
populations, genes don’t differ in frequency
– Gene – DNA sequence that encodes a protein
– Allele – one of several alternative forms of a DNA sequence
(can be coding or non-coding)
Race and genetics
The relationship between race and genetics is relevant to the controversy concerning race classification. In everyday life many societies classify populations into groups based on phenotypical traits and impressions of probable geographic ancestry and socio-economic status - these are the groups we tend to call ""races"". Because the patterns of variation of human genetic traits are clinal, with a gradual change in trait frequency between population clusters, it is possible to statistically correlate clusters of physical traits with individual geographic ancestry. The frequencies of alleles tend to form clusters where populations live closely together and interact over periods of time. This is due to endogamy within kin groups and lineages or national, cultural or linguistic boundaries. This causes genetic clusters to correlate statistically with population groups when a number of alleles are evaluated. Different clines align around the different centers, resulting in more complex variations than those observed comparing continental groups.For example if a person has light skin, light hair and blue eyes, a combination of traits that seems to have evolved in Northern Europe and is found at a high frequency there, it is probable that person has some recent European ancestry. And by extension, according to the racial categories in use in North America that person is likely to be classified by others, and to self-identify, as ""white"". In a similar way, Genetic analysis enables us to determine the geographic ancestry of a person pinpointing the migrational history of a person's ancestors with a high degree of accuracy, and by inference the probable racial category into which they will be classified in a given society. In that way there is a distinct statistical correlation between gene frequencies and racial categories. However, because all populations are genetically diverse, and because there is a complex relation between ancestry, genetic makeup and phenotype, and because racial categories are based on subjective evaluations of the traits, it is not the case that there are any specific genes, that can be used to determine a person's race.Research in genetics offers a means to classify humans which is more precise than broad phenotypically based racial categories, given that genetics can provide a much more complex analysis of individual genetic makeup and geographic ancestry, than self identified membership of a racial category. With a blood transfusion, for example, it is vital to know the genetically determined blood type of the donor and recipient, but it is not helpful to know their respective geographic ancestries. Most physical anthropologists consider race to be primarily a social category that does not correspond significantly with biological variation, but some anthropologists, particularly forensic anthropologists, consider race a useful biological category. They argue that it is possible to determine race from physical remains with a reasonable degree of certainty; what is identified is the geographic phenotype. Medical practitioners also sometimes argue that racial categories can be used successfully as proxies to assess risk of those different heritable illnesses that occur with different frequencies among populations of different geographic ancestries. Others argue that this use may be problematic because it risks underestimating risks of individuals from ethno-racial categories that are not considered high-risk, and to overestimate the risk in populations that are, resulting in stigmatization.