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Study Guide for Honors Biology test: Chapters 13-14
This test will consist of two sections. Some will multiple choice and some parts you will have to write a
short answer. There will be diagrams of information to interpret.
Chapter 13—How Populations Evolve
You should be able to:
 Define the terms: adaptation, natural selection, homologous structure, analogous structure and vestigial
 Describe Lamarck’s theory of acquired characteristics and how this theory was flawed.
 Explain Darwin’s theory.
 List ideas, writings and observations that influenced the formation of Darwin’s theory.
 Explain how each of the following provides evidence of evolution: fossils, anatomy, embryology and
DNA studies (molecular biology).
 Summarize the theory of natural selection and give an example of adaptations that living things have that
show natural selection—especially peppered moths, pesticide-resistant insect populations and the
bacteria/antibiotic battle.
 Explain what is meant by the phrase “modern synthesis”.
 Explain why evolution does not happen to individuals, only to populations over a long period.
 Explain the importance of mutation and sexual reproduction in evolution.
 Define selective pressure and how different pressures lead to the types of selection (stabilizing,
directional and disruptive).
Chapter 14—How Biological Diversity Evolves
You should be able to:
 Compare punctuated equilibrium and graduated models of evolution, being mindful of “sudden” geologic
appearance of organisms vs. our “human” sense of time.
 Define speciation and the biological species concept.
 Describe examples of prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers.
 Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation, noting examples of each.
 Explain factors that lead to new species forming from others including genetic isolation, genetic drift and
founder effect.
 Describe how fossils form—the type of rock you are likely to find them in and the types of material that
might be preserved as a fossil.
 Explain how fossil evidence is interpreted through relative and radioactive dating.