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Personality Types
Personality …
…(Lat. persona= mask) is a socially developed
person, possessing a relatively stable system of
socially significant personal features and
performing corresponding social roles.
Personality Types - Carl Jung
In 1921, Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Jung proposed
that people come in eight different
psychological "flavors", depending on which of
four mental "functions“.
Jung's four functions include two "perceptive"
functions and two "judgmental" functions.
Carl Gustav Jung
Jung developed a
typology that has
become so
popular that some
people don't
realize he did
anything else!
Jungian typology
Personality Types - Myers and Briggs
Building on the writings and
observations of Carl Jung, in 1958,
psychologist Isabel Myers and her
mother Katherine Briggs wrote a
landmark paper titled "Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator" (MBTI for short).
"Myers-Briggs Type Indicator"
two choices for orientation, introvert (I) or
extravert (E);
 two choices for method of information intake,
sensing (S) or intuition (N);
 two choices for method of judgment, thinking
(T) or feeling (F);
 two choices as to which function is used in the
outer world, judgment (J) or perception (P).
Hence there are 2x2x2x2=16 different MBTI
personality types
Personality Types - Carl Jung
Extraverted Thinker
Extraverted Feeler
Extraverted Sensor
Extraverted Intuitor
Introverted Thinker
Introverted Feeler
Introverted Sensor
Introverted Intuitor
Personality types theories
Traits theories
 Psychodynamic theories
 Behavioral theories
 Social learning theories
 Humanistic theories
Allport's Trait Theory
In 1936 Gordon Allport hypothesized that:
“Those individual differences that are most
salient and socially relevant in people’s
lives will eventually become encoded into
their language; the more important such a
difference, the more likely is it to become
expressed as a single word.”
This statement has become known as the
Lexical Hypothesis.
Allport's Trait Theory
Cardinal trait
Central trait
Secondary trait
16PF Questionnaire
The Sixteen
Personality Factor
Questionnaire (or
16PF), is a
which was
developed by
Raymond B. Cattell
and his colleagues.
Cattell's 16PF
Warmth (A)
Reasoning (B)
Emotional Stability
Dominance (E)
Liveliness (F)
Social Boldness (H)
Sensitivity (I)
Vigilance (L)
Abstractedness (M)
Privateness (N)
ensiveness (O)
Openness to change
Self-reliance (Q2)
Perfectionism (Q3)
Tension (Q4)
"Five Factor Model"
The Big five factors are:
 Openness
 Conscientiousness
 Extroversion
 Agreeableness
 Neuroticism
Openness …
… is a general appreciation for art,
emotion, adventure, unusual ideas,
imagination, curiosity, and variety of
Sample Openness items
I have a rich
I have a vivid
I have excellent
I spend time
reflecting on things.
I use difficult
I am not interested
in abstractions.
I do not have a
good imagination.
I have difficulty
abstract ideas.
Conscientiousness …
… is a tendency to show selfdiscipline, act dutifully, and aim for
Sample Conscientiousness items
I am always
I am exacting in my
I follow a schedule.
I get chores done
right away.
I like order.
I pay attention to
I leave my
belongings around.
I make a mess of
I often forget to put
things back in their
proper place.
I shirk my duties.
Extroversion …
… is characterized by positive
emotions, surgency, and the tendency
to seek out stimulation and the
company of others.
Sample Extroversion items
I am the life of the
I don't mind being the
center of attention.
I feel comfortable
around people.
I start conversations.
I talk to a lot of
different people at
I am quiet around
I don't like to draw
attention to myself.
I don't talk a lot.
I have little to say.
Agreeableness …
… is a tendency to be compassionate
and cooperative rather than
suspicious and antagonistic towards
Sample Agreeableness items
I am interested in
I feel others’ emotions.
I have a soft heart.
I make people feel at
I sympathize with
others’ feelings.
I take time out for
I am not interested in
other people’s
I am not really
interested in others.
I feel little concern for
I insult people.
I like being isolated.
Neuroticism …
…is the tendency to experience
negative emotions, such as anger,
anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes
called emotional instability.
Sample Neuroticism items
I am easily disturbed.
I change my mood a
I get irritated easily.
I get stressed out
I get upset easily.
I have frequent mood
I often feel blue.
I worry about things
I am relaxed most of
the time.
I seldom feel blue.
All five factors show an influence from both
heredity and environment. An analysis of the
available studies found overall heritabilities for
the Big Five traits as follows:
Openness: 57%
Extroversion: 54%
Conscientiousness: 49%
Neuroticism: 48%
Agreeableness: 42%
Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud
explained human
behavior in terms
of interaction
between the
components of
The id, the ego, and the superego
The defense mechanisms
Denial involves blocking external events
from awareness.
Anna Freud also mentions denial in
fantasy: This is when children, in their
imaginations, transform an "evil" father
into a loving teddy bear, or a helpless
child into a powerful superhero.
The defense mechanisms
Repression, which Anna Freud also called
"motivated forgetting," is just that: not being
able to recall a threatening situation, person, or
The defense mechanisms
Asceticism, or the renunciation of needs
Anna Freud also discusses a milder version of
this called restriction of ego
The defense mechanisms
Isolation (sometimes called intellectualization)
involves stripping the emotion from a difficult
memory or threatening impulse.
The defense mechanisms
Displacement is the redirection of an
impulse onto a substitute target
The defense mechanisms
Turning against the self is a very
special form of displacement, where
the person becomes their own
substitute target.
The defense mechanisms
Projection, which Anna Freud also
called displacement outward, is
almost the complete opposite of
turning against the self.
The defense mechanisms
Altruistic surrender is a form of
projection that at first glance looks like
its opposite: Here, the person
attempts to fulfill his or her own needs
vicariously, through other people.
The defense mechanisms
Reaction formation, which Anna
Freud called "believing the opposite,"
is changing an unacceptable impulse
into its opposite.
The defense mechanisms
Undoing involves "magical" gestures
or rituals that are meant to cancel out
unpleasant thoughts or feelings after
they've already occurred.
The defense mechanisms
Introjection, sometimes called identification,
involves taking into your own personality
characteristics of someone else, because doing
so solves some emotional difficulty.
The defense mechanisms
Identification with
the aggressor is a
version of introjection
that focuses on the
adoption, not of
general or positive
traits, but of negative
or feared traits.
The defense mechanisms
Regression is a movement back in
psychological time when one is faced
with stress.
The defense mechanisms
Rationalization is the cognitive distortion of
"the facts" to make an event or an impulse less
The defense mechanisms
Sublimation is
the transforming
of an
impulse, whether
it be sex, anger,
fear, or whatever,
into a socially
acceptable, even
productive form.
Behavioral theories
Behaviorists explain personality in terms
of reactions to external stimuli.
This school was initiated by
According to these theories, people's
behavior is formed by processes such as
operant conditioning.
Social learning theories
Albert Bandura, a social learning theorist
suggested that the forces of memory and
emotions worked in conjunction with
environmental influences.
Our habits, behaviors, and cognitions
influence how we respond to others and
to situations.
Self-efficacy …
… is acquired through four factors:
having experiences in mastering new
skills and overcoming obstacles
having successful and competent role
models in one's life
receiving feedback and encouragement
from others
self awareness and management of
one's inner state (thoughts and
“Locus of control" …
… is the degree to which people believe
they have control over their lives.
Humanistic theories
Humanistic psychology focuses on
subjective experiences of persons
instead of factors that determine
This approach explores human
potential and the strengths of the
human being.
Maslow created
hierarchy of needs.
This approach dwells
on the unique human
capacity to shape
one's own future
through freedom of
choice and free will.
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Lincoln,
 Thomas Jefferson,
 Albert Einstein,
 Eleanor Roosevelt,
 Jane Adams,
 William James,
 Albert Schweitzer,
 Benedict Spinoza,
 Alduous Huxley,
plus 12 unnamed people who were alive at the
time Maslow did his research.
Characteristics of Self-actualizers
reality-centered and problem-centered
different perception of means and ends
enjoy solitude
enjoy deeper personal relations with a few
close friends and family members
unhostile sense of humor
acceptance of self and others
spontaneity and simplicity
humility and respect towards others
strong ethics, etc
Personality tests …
… aim to assess aspects of a person's
character that remain stable across a
variety of situations.