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Transcript
Chapter 33
Heat and Cold Applications
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Heat and cold applications:
• Promote healing and comfort
• Reduce tissue swelling
 Heat and cold have opposite effects on body
function.
 You must understand the purposes, effects, and
complications of heat and cold applications.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 2


Doctors order heat and cold applications.
Before you apply heat or cold applications, make
sure that:
• Your state allows you to perform the procedure
• The procedure is in your job description
• You have the necessary training
• You know how to use the equipment
• You review the procedure with a nurse
• A nurse is available to answer questions and to
supervise you
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 3
HEAT APPLICATIONS


Heat does the following:
•
•
•
•
•

Relieves pain
Relaxes muscles
Promotes healing
Reduces tissue swelling
Decreases joint stiffness
When heat is applied to the skin:
•
•
•
•
•
Blood vessels in the area dilate.
Blood flow increases.
Tissues have more oxygen and nutrients for healing.
Excess fluid is removed from the area faster.
The skin is red and warm.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 4

Complications
• High temperatures can cause burns.
• When heat is applied too long:




Blood vessels constrict.
Tissues receive less blood.
Tissue damage occurs and the skin is pale.
Persons at risk for complications include:
• Older and fair-skinned persons
• Persons with problems sensing heat and pain
• Persons with metal implants
• Pregnant women
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 5

Moist heat applications
• With a moist heat application, water is in contact with
•
•
the skin.
Moist heat has greater and faster effects than dry heat.
Heat penetrates deeper with a moist application.

•
To prevent injury, moist heat applications have lower
temperatures than dry heat applications.
Types of moist heat applications




A hot compress is a soft pad applied over a body area.
A hot soak involves putting a body part into water.
A sitz bath involves immersing the perineal and rectal
areas in warm water.
A pack involves wrapping a body part with a wet or dry
application.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 6

Dry heat applications
• Water is not in contact with the skin.
• The application stays at the desired temperature
•
•
longer.
Dry heat does not penetrate as deeply as moist heat.
Dry heat needs higher temperatures to achieve the
desired effect.

•
Burns are a risk.
Some hot packs and the aquathermia pad (Aqua-K, KPad) are dry heat applications.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 7
COLD APPLICATIONS


Cold applications are used to:
•
•
•



Treat sprains and fractures
Reduce pain, prevent swelling, and decrease
circulation and bleeding
Cool the body when fever is present
Cold has the opposite effect of heat.
When cold is applied to the skin, blood vessels
constrict.
Cold applications are useful right after an
injury.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 8

Complications include:
• Pain
• Burns and blisters


•
•

From intense cold
When dry cold is in direct contact with the skin
Poor circulation
When cold is applied for a long time, blood vessels
dilate.
Persons at risk for complications include:
• Older and fair-skinned persons
• Persons with sensory impairments
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 9

Moist cold applications:
• Penetrate deeper than dry ones
• Are not as cold as dry applications
 The cold compress is a moist cold application.
 Dry cold applications include ice bags, ice
collars, and ice gloves.
 Cold packs can be moist or dry applications.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 10
APPLYING HEAT AND COLD


Protect the person from injury.
COOLING AND WARMING BLANKET


Hyperthermia is a body temperature that is
much higher than the person’s normal range.
•
Causes include:




•
Hot weather (heat stroke)
Illness
Dehydration
Not being able to perspire
Lowering the person’s body temperature is
necessary.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 11

Hypothermia is a very low body temperature.
• Cold weather is a common cause.
• The person is warmed to prevent death.
 A cooling and warming blanket may be used to
treat hyperthermia and hypothermia.
• When used for cooling, the device is called a
hypothermia blanket.
• When used for warming, it is called a hyperthermia
blanket.
Mosby items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Slide 12