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Chapter 11
Developmental Theories
Denise Coffey MSN, RN
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Growth and Development


Growth encompasses the physical
changes across a person’s lifespan.
Developmental processes include
biological, cognitive, and socioemotional
factors.
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
2
Developmental Theories


Provide a framework for examining,
describing, and appreciating human
development.
Help nurses assess and treat a client's
response to illness.
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
3
Biophysical Developmental
Theories


Examine how bodies grow and change
Gessell’s Theory of Development

Based on children’s physical growth
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
4
Psychoanalytic/Psychosocial
Theory


Describes development from personality,
cognitive, and behavioral perspectives
Sigmund Freud


Identified five stages of development
Erik Erikson

Identified eight stages of development
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
5
Perspectives on Adult
Development



Human development is lifelong
Changes are slower
Roger Gould

Four themes
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
6
Cognitive Developmental Theory


Examines how people learn to think and
make sense of their world
Jean Piaget


Four stages
Social cognitive theory

Albert Bandura
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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Moral Development Theory


Refers to changes in a person’s thoughts,
emotions, and behaviors that influence the
perception of right or wrong
Piaget’s Moral Developmental Theory


Two stages
Kohlberg’s Moral Developmental Theory

Six stages
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
8
Moral Reasoning and Nursing
Practice


Nurses need to identify their own moral
reasoning.
Nurses need to recognize the level of
moral reasoning used by other health care
team members.
Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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