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Transcript
Chapter 26
Infectious Disease
Prevention and Control
Francisco S. Sy
Susan C. Long-Marin
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Introduction
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Worldwide concern about infectious diseases has
increased with the rise of human migration
As people move from one place to another, they
bring their diseases, levels of immunity and
resistance, and the viruses or bacteria they may
harbor that have not emerged as diseases
The topic is complex and includes study of a wide
range and variety of organisms, the pathology they
may cause, and their diagnosis, treatment,
prevention, and control
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
2
Historical and Current Perspectives
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1900: Communicable diseases were the leading
causes of death in the United States
By 2000: Improved nutrition and sanitation, vaccines,
and antibiotics had put an end to the epidemics that
once ravaged entire populations
As people live longer, chronic diseases (heart
disease, cancer, and stroke) have replaced infectious
diseases as the leading causes of death
Infectious diseases have not vanished – they are still
the number-one cause of death worldwide
New killers are emerging, and old familiar diseases
are taking on different, more virulent characteristics
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
3
Transmission of
Infectious Diseases
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Agent, host, and environment
Modes of transmission
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Vertical transmission
Horizontal transmission
Common vehicle
Vectors
Disease development
Disease spectrum
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Endemic
Epidemic
Pandemic
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
4
Surveillance of
Infectious Diseases
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Surveillance: gather the who, when, where, and what;
these elements are then used to answer why
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Surveillance for agents of bioterrorism
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A good surveillance system systematically collects,
organizes, and analyzes current, accurate, and complete
data for a defined disease condition
The resulting information is promptly released to those who
need it for effective planning, implementation, and evaluation
of disease prevention and control programs
Anthrax
Smallpox
List of Reportable diseases
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Varies by state
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
5
Emerging Infectious Diseases
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Emerging infectious diseases: those in which
the incidence has actually increased in the
past two decades or has the potential to
increase in the near future
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Ebola virus
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
HIV/AIDS
West Nile virus (WNV)
Emergency factors
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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Prevention and Control of
Infectious Diseases
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Primary prevention
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Secondary prevention
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Reducing complications through treatment and rehabilitation
Role of nurse in prevention
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Preventing the spread of disease once it occurs
Tertiary prevention
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Preventing the incidence of disease before it happens
Control and teach about disease; screen for disease; treat
persons with disease
Multisystem approach to control
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
7
Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
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Routine childhood immunization schedule
vaccinates children against 11 diseases:
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Hepatitis B, diphtheria, pertussis, measles,
mumps, rubella, polio, Haemophilus influenzae,
type B meningitis, varicella (chickenpox), and
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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Food- and Waterborne Diseases
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Ten golden rules for safe food preparation
Foodborne diseases
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Salmonellosis
Escherichia coli 0157:H7
Waterborne diseases
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Hepatitis A
Cholera
Typhoid fever
Bacillary dysentery
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
9
Vector-Borne Diseases
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Vector-borne diseases: refers to illnesses for
which the infectious agent is transmitted by a
carrier (vector)
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Lyme disease
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Prevention and control of tick-borne diseases
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Vaccine for Lyme disease recommended for those
living in high-risk areas
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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Diseases of Travelers
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Those traveling outside the U.S. need to be
aware of and take precautions against
diseases they may be exposed to; may return
to the U.S. with an “unplanned souvenir”;
health professionals taking client history need
to consider recent travel by the client
Malaria
Foodborne and waterborne diseases
Diarrheal diseases
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
11
Zoonoses and Parasitic Diseases
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Zoonosis: an infection transmitted from a
vertebrate animal to a human under natural
conditions
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Rabies (hydrophobia)
Parasitic diseases
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More prevalent in tropical climates and countries
with inadequate prevention and control methods
Intestinal parasitic infections
Parasitic opportunistic infections
Control and prevention of parasitic infections
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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Nosocomial Infections
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Nosocomial infections: infections acquired
during hospitalization or developed within the
hospital setting
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May involve patients, health care workers, visitors,
or anyone who has contact with a hospital
Universal Precautions: procedures to prevent
exposure to blood-borne diseases
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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Nurses’ Role and
Communicable Diseases
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Communicable disease prevention and control
programs must move beyond providing drug
treatment and vaccines
Health promotion and education must be aimed at
changing individual and community behavior
Nurses play a key role in all aspects of prevention
and control of communicable diseases
Close cooperation with other members of the
interdisciplinary health care team is crucial
Mobilizing community participation is essential to
successful implementation of programs
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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