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Chapter 6:
Neurobiology in Mental Health and
Mental Disorder
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neurobiology and Human
Behavior


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The brain is one of the most important and
complex organs in the human body
Controls multiple functions
Psychiatric disorders are brain-based illnesses
with anatomic or physiologic components
Nurses need to understand the brain and its
interaction with the nervous system
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2
Figure 6-1 Functional areas of the cerebral cortex. (From Thibodeau GA, Patton KT:
Anatomy & physiology, ed 6, St Louis, 2007, Mosby.)
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Figure 6-2 The limbic system.
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
4
Central and Peripheral
Nervous System

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
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One of the most complex and vital structures
in the body
Brain weighs 3 to 5 pounds and contains
140 billion cells
CNS: composed of the spinal cord and brain
PNS: peripheral nerves and 12 pairs of
cranial nerves
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
5
Neuroanatomy
Cerebrum: largest part of the brain
 Frontal lobe: controls voluntary actions
 Prefrontal cortex: cognition, memory, and
analytical functions
 Temporal lobe: language, memory, and
emotion
 Occipital lobe: visual, color recognition
 Parietal lobe: sensory processing center

Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Figure 6-3 Structural features of neurons: dendrites, cell body, and axon. (From Lewis
SM et al: Medical-surgical nursing: assessment and management of clinical problems, ed
7, St Louis, 2007, Mosby.)
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
7
Figure 6-4 Electrical and chemical synapses. A, Electrical synapses involve gap junctions
that allow action potentials to move from cell to cell directly by allowing electrical current
to flow between cells. B, Chemical synapses involve transmitter chemicals
(neurotransmitters) that signal postsynaptic cells, possibly inducing an action potential.
(From Thibodeau GA, Patton KT: Anatomy & physiology, ed 6, St Louis, 2007, Mosby.)
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
8
Neuroimaging

Modern brain imaging helps to explain the
brains structure, function, and relationship
with psychiatric illness
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
9
Figure 6-5 Neuroimaging techniques. A, Computed tomography scan. (From Thibodeau GA, Patton
KT: Anatomy & physiology, ed 6, St Louis, 2007, Mosby.)
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
10
Figure 6-5 Neuroimaging techniques. B, Magnetic resonance imaging scan. C, Positron
emission tomography scan. (From Thibodeau GA, Patton KT: Anatomy & physiology, ed
6, St Louis, 2007, Mosby.)
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
11
Neuroscience

Emerging fields (such as genetics, stem cell
research) continue to develop advanced
technologies that lead to improved medical
and nursing care for patients with
neurobiologic disorders.
Copyright © 2012, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
12