Thermodynamics and Heat Powered Cycles
... and courses in combined studies in which thermodynamics and related topics are an important
part of the curriculum. Students of engineering technology and industrial engineers will also
find portions of the book useful.
Classical thermodynamics is based upon the concept of “equilibrium”. This means ...
... Range geothermal systems will benefit today’s power plant and direct-use developers.
The basic thermal gradient data were collected over 15 years ago under a different
development objective - large (multi-km square) areas with temperatures exceeding 200°C. Most
exploration effort at that time sought ...
A Heat Transfer Textbook by John H. Lienhard IV and John H
... experience naturally. The conductive cooling of Earth’s center and the radiative cooling of the other stars are processes of secondary importance
in our lives.
The life forms on our planet have necessarily evolved to match the
magnitude of these energy ﬂows. But while “natural man” is in balance
Photothermal effects in micro/nano electromechanical systems
... nanomechanical string resonators. As temperature or heat is the external stimulus in
spectroscopy, these sensors are treated as thermal sensors. Detailed theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out in optimizing the most influential parameters
and understanding the basic thermomecha ...
Chapter 2 Kiln Types and Features
... heat pump and the strip heaters that are frequently
used to bring the kiln up to a minimum temperature
for efficient operation of the compressors. For small
kilns drying 500 to 1,000 fbm, designs using electric
strip heaters have been suggested (Rice 1977).
Hot Water and Hot Oil
Some kilns are heate ...
... experimental data from the “Cold Plate,” an experimental apparatus specifically designed and
built to quantify heat and mass transfer processes. The “Cold Plate” apparatus represents a new
kind of apparatus that addresses the shortcomings in the existing data sets on energy balance for
green roofs. ...
2002 Lyman ETFS
... The experimental design was such to insure that meaningful, spatially-resolved heat
transfer coefficients could be made along several streamwise louvers over a range of Reynolds
numbers. To insure good measurement resolution, the louver model was scaled up by a factor of
20. The flow conditions were ...
2009 Barringer JT
... diameter 共ID兲 and outer diameter 共OD兲 endwalls. Their shape and
complexity originate from intense flow interactions that take place
within the upstream combustor section. The spatial variations in
pressure and temperature at the turbine inlet result in nonuniform
heat transfer to the vanes and blade ...
Development of Hydrogen Storage Systems using Sodium Alanate
... Nowadays, more than 80 % of worldwide utilized energy comes from fossil-fuel sources i.e. coal, gas
and petroleum [1, 2]. Unfortunately, there are several drawbacks associated to the usage of fossilfuels. Firstly, the energy supply reserves from fossil fuels are limited, and actually it is estimated ...
modelling and simulation of metal cutting
... ELEMENT METHOD
Metal cutting is one of the most widely used manufacturing techniques in the
industry and there are lots of studies to investigate this complex process in both
academic and industrial world. Predictions of important process variables such as
temperature, cutting forces and stress dist ...
Increasing Cardiorespiratory Endurance
... of an activity is paid in full by the body during the
activity. Steady state oxygen consumption can be maintained for an average of 10 to 60 minutes during submaximal continuous exercise. This may not apply for
exercise during hot and humid weather. The stress of
exercising during these conditions c ...
A new method for quantifying anisotropic martensitic transformation
... during the thermal cycle is measured in one direction. One of the
problems with the test is that the whole of the tensile specimen is
not maintained at a uniform temperature so that the extent of
transformation varies along the specimen length, making results
difﬁcult to interpret. While this can be ...
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different. A thermoconforming organism, by contrast, simply adopts the surrounding temperature as its own body temperature, thus avoiding the need for internal thermoregulation. The internal thermoregulation process is one aspect of homeostasis: a state of dynamic stability in an organism's internal conditions, maintained far from equilibrium with its environment (the study of such processes in zoology has been called physiological or physiological ecology). If the body is unable to maintain a normal temperature and it increases significantly above normal, a condition known as hyperthermia occurs. For humans, this occurs when the body is exposed to constant temperatures of approximately 55 °C (131 °F), and with prolonged exposure (longer than a few hours) at this temperature and up to around 75 °C (167 °F) death is almost inevitable. Humans may also experience lethal hyperthermia when the wet bulb temperature is sustained above 35 °C (95 °F) for six hours. The opposite condition, when body temperature decreases below normal levels, is known as hypothermia.It was not until the introduction of thermometers that any exact data on the temperature of animals could be obtained. It was then found that local differences were present, since heat production and heat loss vary considerably in different parts of the body, although the circulation of the blood tends to bring about a mean temperature of the internal parts. Hence it is important to identify the parts of the body that most closely reflect the temperature of the internal organs. Also, for such results to be comparable, the measurements must be conducted under comparable conditions. The rectum has traditionally been considered to reflect most accurately the temperature of internal parts, or in some cases of sex or species, the vagina, uterus or bladder.Occasionally the temperature of the urine as it leaves the urethra may be of use in measuring body temperature. More often the temperature is taken in the mouth, axilla, ear or groin.Some animals undergo one of various forms of dormancy where the thermoregulation process temporarily allows the body temperature to drop, thereby conserving energy. Examples include hibernating bears and torpor in bats.