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Mechanisms of Evolution Test Review 1. What does the term “survival of the fittest” mean? 2. What is “fit?” 3. If the environment changes, do animals adapt to that change or those that have good traits survive while those that don’t die off? 4. If the organism is extremely well adapted to withstand changes in the environment, would it change? 5. Does natural selection produce changes in populations, in individuals, or in an individual's genes? 6. What is the gene pool? 7. What is geographic isolation? 8. Geographic isolation can result in the formation of a new _____________. 9. This graph shows two different bacteria populations. Which population is better fit in this environment? 10. What is probably happening to P.caudatum? 11. Some organisms have genes that improve their ability to survive and reproduce. If the genes also help their offspring survive and reproduce, then what will most likely happen to the frequency of these genes in the population? 12. Define genetic variation. 13. Define gene flow. 14. A male lion leaves its pride, joins another pride, and reproduces. The lion is contributing to the gene pool of the new pride. Does genetic variation increase or decrease in the new pride? 15. How does camouflage help increase an organism’s chance of survival? 16. How does mimicry help increase an organism’s chance of survival? 17. When you are sick with a bacterial infection you take antibiotics. Antibiotics kill the least resistant bacteria first. Explain how this is an example of natural selection. 18. If you color your hair blue, this trait will NOT be passed on to your offspring. Why? 19. How can mutations create new species? 20. You treat you home with a pesticide that kills 92% of the roaches the first time, but four months later you have to treat your home again and it only kills 65% of the roaches. Why does the pesticide seem to have decreased in effectiveness? 21. Explain what happens to populations that change by stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive selection. 22. What is Natural Selection? 23. How does creating an abundance of offspring contribute to reproductive success? 24. What is speciation? 25. What are they ways that speciation can occur? 26. What is genetic drift? 27. How does the Founder Effect influence the gene pool of a population? 28. What is gene Frequency? 29. Comparisons of protein similarity between species can reveal the degree of genetic kinship between organisms because specific amino acids are coded for by known ______________________ sequences.