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Endocrine Review
Endocrine glands don’t have ___________ and secrete their product into the ___________ . The
anterior pituitary can both ___________ and ___________ hormones under the stimulation of the
hypothalamus, whereas the posterior pituitary can only ___________ hormones made in the
___________ . TH and the androgens are different from hormones like insulin that they are not
___________ . Because of this, they can cross the lipid ___________ and instigate changes within the
cell. For example, TH affect the ___________ and ___________ of target cells to cause and increase in
metabolism. ___________ ___________ hormones can’t cross ___________ and therefore can not
enter cells. ___________ results from either the hyposecretion or inaction of insulin. Type I is called
insulin ___________ because it involves the destruction of ___________ cells in the pancreas by the
body’s ___________ . Type II diabetes patients still produce insulin, but they don’t have receptors for
Fill in the blanks.
C. Match the following
Thyroid hormone
Increases blood Ca
Elevates metabolic rate, 02 consumption, heat production
Decreases blood Ca levels
Stimulates fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, stress
resistance, immune inhibition
Maintains BP via Na retention
Influences mood, maybe times puberty
Mediates GH action, produced by liver
Enhances AA transport into cells, increases protein synthesis,
catabolizes fat
Decreases blood volume via Na and water excretion
Male Reproduction
Sex differentiation is determined by the ___________ gene on the Y chromosome, which codes for a
protein called ___________ .This protein leads to ___________ and the produced testosterone causes
production of ___________ factor, which causes degeneration of the ___________ ducts. The three
mechanisms designed to regulate testicular temperature are ________________, ________________,
________________. The seminal fluid is comprised of 60% ________________,
30%________________, and 10%________________, as well as some lubrication from Cowper’s gland.
In semen formation, clotting enzyme from the ___________ gland combines with ___________ from
the seminal vesicles to produce ___________ , which causes the sperm to clot. This substance can be
broken down by ___________ from the prostate. Penile structure consists of a pair of ___________ ,
and a single ___________ , which houses the urethra. The ___________ barrier is made by tight
junctions of the ___________ cells, to prevent the sperm being killed by the ___________ . The low
___________ environment also prepares the sperm to survive in the hypoxic environment of the
___________ ___________ ___________ .
B. Fill in the diagram.
Puberty –
Adolescence –.
Female Repro
The uterus is comprised of three layer. The ___________ is the outermost ___________ , the
___________ is the middle layer, characterized by ___________ , and the innermost ___________ is
further split up into the ___________ , which is shed every month, and the ___________ which
remains the same. Puberty is initiated by rising levels of ___________ , which triggers secretion of
___________ and ___________ . In response, the ovaries secrete ___________ . ___________ is a
girl’s first menstrual period, while ___________ denominates breast development. The ___________
phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by mitotic division of the ___________ while the secretory
phase exhibits filling of this tissue with ___________ . Egg production is called ___________ . The
urethra in the female is embedded in the _________________________________ . When an egg is
released, it is caught by the ___________ , and travels through the oviduct to the ___________
________________________________ where it can be fertilized.