Download AP Chemistry Review Packet 1 CO2(g) + H2(g) « H2O(g) + CO(g

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Stoichiometry wikipedia, lookup

Rate equation wikipedia, lookup

Physical organic chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy wikipedia, lookup

PH wikipedia, lookup

Bioorthogonal chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Process chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Electrolysis of water wikipedia, lookup

Crystallization wikipedia, lookup

Redox wikipedia, lookup

Chemical thermodynamics wikipedia, lookup

Photosynthetic reaction centre wikipedia, lookup

Transition state theory wikipedia, lookup

Marcus theory wikipedia, lookup

Photoredox catalysis wikipedia, lookup

Lewis acid catalysis wikipedia, lookup

Chemical equilibrium wikipedia, lookup

Chemical reaction wikipedia, lookup

Click chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Acid–base reaction wikipedia, lookup

Catalysis wikipedia, lookup

George S. Hammond wikipedia, lookup

Hydroformylation wikipedia, lookup

Strychnine total synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Reaction progress kinetic analysis wikipedia, lookup

Hydrogen-bond catalysis wikipedia, lookup

Nucleophilic acyl substitution wikipedia, lookup

Acid dissociation constant wikipedia, lookup

Stability constants of complexes wikipedia, lookup

Vapor–liquid equilibrium wikipedia, lookup

Determination of equilibrium constants wikipedia, lookup

Thermodynamics wikipedia, lookup

Supramolecular catalysis wikipedia, lookup

Thermomechanical analysis wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
AP Chemistry Review Packet 1
CO2(g) + H2(g)  H2O(g) + CO(g)
When H2(g) is mixed with CO2(g) at 2,000 K, equilibrium is achieved according to the equation
above. In one experiment, the following equilibrium concentrations were measured.
[H2] = 0.20 mol/L
[CO2] = 0.30 mol/L
[H2O] = [CO] = 0.55 mol/L
(a) What is the mole fraction of CO(g) in the equilibrium mixture?
(b) Using the equilibrium concentrations given above, calculate the value of Kc, the equilibrium
constant for the reaction.
(c) Determine Kp in terms of Kc for this system.
(d) When the system is cooled from 2,000 K to a lower temperature, 30.0 percent of the CO(g) is
converted back to CO2(g). Calculate the value of Kc at this lower temperature.
(e) In a different experiment, 0.50 mole of H2(g) is mixed with 0.50 mole of CO2(g) in a 3.0-liter
reaction vessel at 2,000 K. Calculate the equilibrium concentration, in moles per liter, of
CO(g) at this temperature.
For the system 2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  2 SO3(g) , H is negative for the production of SO3. Assume
that one has an equilibrium mixture of these substances. Predict the effect of each of the
following changes on the value of the equilibrium constant and on the number of moles of SO 3
present in the mixture at equilibrium. Briefly account for each of your predictions. (Assume that in
each case all other factors remain constant.)
(a) Decreasing the volume of the system.
(b) Adding oxygen to the equilibrium mixture.
(c) Raising the temperature of the system.
NH4Cl(s)  NH3(g) + HCl(g) H = +42.1 kilocalories
Suppose the substances in the reaction above are at equilibrium at 600K in volume V and at
pressure P. State whether the partial pressure of NH3(g) will have increased, decreased, or
remained the same when equilibrium is reestablished after each of the following disturbances of
the original system. Some solid NH4Cl remains in the flask at all times. Justify each answer with
a one-or-two sentence explanation.
(a) A small quantity of NH4Cl is added.
(b) The temperature of the system is increased.
(c) The volume of the system is increased.
(d) A quantity of gaseous HCl is added.
(e) A quantity of gaseous NH3 is added.
A 10.00 milliliter sample of NH3 solution is titrated with a standard HCl solution.
1) An unknown volume of water is added to the HCl solution.
2) An unknown volume of water is added to the 10.00 milliliter sample of NH3 solution.
3) Phenolphthalein is used as the indicator.
For each of these three steps taken during the titration:
(a) State whether it introduces an error into the titration results.
(b) For any of the steps that introduce(s) an error, state whether the titration result will be raised
or lowered compared to the result obtained if the error had not been made.
(c) Explain why the result is high or low for each error that you detect.
An experiment is to be performed to determine the standard molar enthalpy of neutralization of a
strong acid by a strong base. Standard school laboratory equipment and a supply of standardized
1.00-molar HCl and standardized 1.00-molar NaOH are available.
(a) What equipment would be needed?
(b) What measurements should be taken?
(c) Without performing calculations, describe how the resulting data should be used to obtain
the standard molar enthalpy of neutralization.
(d) When a class of students performed this experiment, the average of the results was -55.0
kilojoules per mole. The accepted value for the standard molar enthalpy of neutralization of
a strong acid by a strong base -57.7 kilojoules per mole. Propose two likely sources of
experimental error that could account for the result obtained by the class.
A(aq) + 2 B(aq)  3 C(aq) + D(aq)
For the reaction above, carried out in solution of 30C, the following kinetic data were obtained:
Experiment
1
2
3
4
5
6
Initial Conc. of Reactants
Initial Rate of Reaction
(mole.liter-1)
(mole.liter-1.hr-1)
Ao
0.240
0.240
0.360
0.120
0.240
0.0140
Bo
0.480
0.120
0.240
0.120
0.0600
1.35
8.00
2.00
9.00
0.500
1.00
?
(a) Write the rate-law expression for this reaction.
(b) Calculate the value of the specific rate constant k at 30C and specify its units.
(c) Calculate the value of the initial rate of this reaction at 30C for the initial concentrations
shown in experiment 6.
(d) Assume that the reaction goes to completion. Under the conditions specified for experiment
2, what would be the final molar concentration of C?
The decomposition of compound X is an elementary process that proceeds as follows:
kf
X(g) 
 A(g)  B(g)
kr
H15 kilocalories
The forward reaction is slow at room temperature but becomes rapid when a catalyst is added.
(a) Draw a diagram of potential energy vs reaction coordinate for the uncatalyzed reaction. On
this diagram label:
(1) the axes
(2) the energies of the reactants and the products
(3) the energy of the activated complex
(4) all significant energy differences
(b) On the same diagram indicate the change or changes that result from the addition of the
catalyst. Explain the role of the catalyst in changing the rate of the reaction.
(c) If the temperature is increased, will the ratio kf/kr increase, remain the same, or decrease?
Justify your answer with a one or two sentence explanation. [kf and kr are the specific rate
constants for the forward and the reverse reactions, respectively.]