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Transcript
Order Code
Code RS21654
October 29,
October
29, 2003
Report for
for Congress
CRS Report
Received through
through the
the CRS
CRS Web
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas:
Background
Febe Armanios
in Middle East Religions
Religions and Cultures
Analyst in
Foreign
Affairs, Defense,
Defense, and
and Trade
Foreign Affairs,
Summary
September 11, 2001, the Islamic
Islamic religious schools
Since the terrorist attacks on September
known as madrasas (or madrassahs) in the Middle East, Central, and Southeast Asia
have been of increasing
increasing interest to U.S.
U.S. foreign
foreign policy
policymakers.
makers. Some allege ties between
between
madrasas and terrorist organizations, such as Al Qaeda, and assert that these religious
of these
schools promote Islamic extremism and militancy. Others maintain that most of
religious schools have been blamed unfairly for fostering anti-U.S. sentiments and for
of their role in the
producing terrorists. This report provides an overview of madrasas, of
Muslim world and issues related to their alleged financing by Saudi Arabia and other
Related CRS
CRS products
products include
include CRS
CRS Issue
Issue Brief
Briefffi93113,
external donors. Related
IB93113, CRS Report
This report
report will
will be
be updated
updated as events warrant.
RS21457, and CRS Report RS21432.
RS21432. This
Overview
Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the Islamic schools known as
madrasas have
have been
been of
of increasing
increasing interest
interest to analysts
analysts and to officials
officials involved
involved in
formulating U.S.
foreign policy toward the Middle East, Central, and Southeast Asia.
formulating
U.S. foreign
Madrasas drew added attention when it became known that several Taliban leaders and
Al Qaeda members had developed radical political views at madrasas in Pakistan, some
allegedly were built and
and partially
partially financed
financed through
through Saudi
Saudi Arabian
Arabian sources.
sources.
of which allegedly
These revelations have led to accusations that madrasas promote Islamic extremism and
of these
militancy, and are a recruiting ground
ground for
for terrorism.
terrorism. Others maintain that most of
religious schools have been blamed
blamed unfairly for fostering anti-U.S. sentiments and argue
Muslims live in
that madrasas play an important role in countries
countries where millions
millions of Muslims
poverty and the educational infrastructure is in decay.
Background
Definition. The Arabic word madrasa generally has two meanings: 1) in its more
common literal and colloquial usage, it means "school"; 2) in its secondary meaning, a
an educational
educational institution
institution offering
offering instruction
instruction in
the Islamic
Islamic subjects
subjects
madrasa is an
in the
of the Prophet Muhammad,
including, but not limited to, the Quran, the sayings (hadith) of
Congressional Research
TheLibrary
Libraryof
ofCongress
Congress
Congressional
ResearchService
Service.:.The
ACLURM002798
CRS-2
(jiqh), and law.
jurisprudence (fiqh),
law. Historically, madrasas were distinguished as
as institutions
of higher studies and existed in contrast to more
of
more rudimentary
rudimentary schools called kuttab which
Recently, "madrasa" has been used as a catchall denoting any
the Quran.1
Quran. 1 Recently,
only taught
taught the
secondary, or advanced - that promotes an Islamic based curriculum.
school - primary, secondary,
refers to any
However in many
many countries,
countries, including
including Egypt
Egypt and
and Lebanon,
Lebanon, madrasa refers
However
educational institution (state-sponsored,
(state-sponsored, private,
private, secular,
secular, or
or religious).
religious). In Pakistan and
commonly refers
Bangladesh, madrasa commonly
refers to
to Islamic
Islamicreligious
religiousschools.
schools. This
This can
can be
be a
reform" could have
significant semantic
semantic marker,
analysis of "madrasa reform"
significant
marker, because
because an
an analysis
different implications within various cultural, political,
political, and
and geographic
geographic contexts.
contexts. Unless
otherwise noted in this paper, the term madrasa refers to Islamic religious schools at the
primary and secondary levels.
History. As an institution oflearning,
One of
ofthe
of learning, the madrasa is centuries old. One
the first
established madrasas, called the Nizamiyah, was built in Baghdad during the eleventh
century A.D.
Offering food,
food, lodging,
lodging, and
and aa free
free education,
education, madrasas spread rapidly
century
A.D. Offering
throughout the Muslim world, and although their curricula varied from place to place, it
religious in character
character because these schools ultimately
ultimately were
was always religious
were intended to
work. In emphasizing classical
prepare future Islamic religious scholars (ulama) for their work.
traditions in Arabic
Arabic linguistics,
linguistics, teachers
teachers lectured
lectured and students
students learned
learned through
through rote
traditions
of Western
Duringthe
thenineteenth
nineteenthand
andearly
early twentieth
twentieth centuries,
centuries, in
in the era of
memorization. During
colonial rule,
rule, secular institutions
institutions came to supersede
supersede religious
religious schools
schools in
in importance
importance
colonial
revitalized in the 1970s with the
throughout the Islamic world.
world. However, madrasas were revitalized
rising interest
interest in religious
religious studies
studies and Islamist politics
countries such
rising
politics in countries
such as Iran and
In the 1980s, madrasas in Afghanistan and Pakistan were allegedly boosted by
Pakistan. In
financial support from the United States,2
States,2 European
European governments,
governments, and
an increase in financial
Saudi Arabia, all of whom reportedly viewed these schools as recruiting grounds for the
Inthe
the early
early 1990s,
1990s, the
the Taliban
Taliban movement was formed
anti-Soviet Mujahedin
Mujahedin33 fighters. In
"student" in
in Arabic), many of
by Afghani Islamic clerics and students (talib means "student"
of whom
were former Mujahedin who had studied and trained in madrasas and who advocated a
oflslam
strict form of
Islam similar to the Wahhabism
Wahhabism44 practiced in Saudi Arabia.
Relationship between Madrasas and other
other Educational
Educational Institutions.
Institutions.
Relationship
most Muslim
Muslim countries
countries today,
part of
of aabroader
broader educational
educational
Madrasas, in most
today, exist
exist as part
infrastructure. For
For those
those who
who can
can afford
afford the
the high
high tuition
tuition costs,
costs, there
there is aa private
private
infrastructure.
educational sector
sector where students
students can receive what
what is considered
educational
considered to be a quality WesternWesternof their
their relatively
relatively lower
people turn
tum to state
state
style education.
Because of
style
education. Because
lower costs,
costs, many
many people
However, in
in recent
recent years
years and in more impoverished nations,
schools, where they exist.
exist. However,
the rising costs and shortages of public educational institutions have encouraged parents
of a state educational system have argued
to send their children to madrasas. Supporters of
ofIslam, new ed (Leiden:
1965-); "Madrasah,"
See "Madrasa" in the Encyclopedia of
(Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1965-);
"Madrasah,"
theOxford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia of
ofthe Modern Islamic World (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995).
in theOxford
1
2Mary Ann Weaver, "Children of the Jihad," The New Yorker, June 12,
12,1995.
1995.
2
3
literally "one
"one who fights in the cause ofIslam."
The term mujahedin refers to Islamic guerrillas, literally
of Islam."
4 The word "Wahhabi"is derived from
from the name of
of aa Muslim
Muslim scholar,
scholar, Muhammad
Muhammad Ibn Abd
(1703-1791). Wahhabism is the one of
of the more conservative forms of
al-Wahhab (1703-1791).Wahhabism
of Sunni Islam.
At its core, it stresses the absolute unity of
of God and a return to a pure and orthodox practice of
Islam, as embodied in the Quran and in the life of the Prophet Muhammad.
ACLURM002799
CRS-3
of existing
existing schools or
or the building
of new ones could offer a viable
that the improvement
improvement of
building of
madrasas. Others
Others maintain that reforms
reforms should be
alternative to the religious-based
religious-based madrasas.
alternative
institutionalized primarily within Islamic madrasas in order to ensure a well-rounded
well-rounded
curriculum at these popular
popular institutions.
institutions. In the Agency for International
International Development's
Development's
Education in the Muslim World," both of
of these
(USAID) 2003 Report on "Strengthening
"Strengthening Education
viewpoints are
are advocated.
advocated.'5
Although there
there are a few schools
Curriculum. Although
schools thatteach
that teach secular
secular subjects, in general
general
madrasas offer a religious-based curriculum, focusing on the Quran and Islamic texts.
instruction in basic religious tenets, some argue that a small group of radicalized
Beyond instruction
radicalized
specifically located
Afghanistan-Pakistan border,
spawning a
madrasas, specifically
located on
on the Afghanistan-Pakistan
border, are
are spawning
of Islam and calling on Muslims to fight
fight nonbelievers
nonbelievers and stand against
militant form of
West. 6 Other
Otherobservers
observers suggest
suggest that
that these
what they see as the moral depravity of the West.6
on
teaching
schools
are
wholly
unconcerned
with
religious
scholarship
and
focused
solely
schools
unconcerned
scholarship
teaching
7
recentstudy
studyby
by USAID
USAID denotes
denotes the links between madrasas and extremist
violence. AArecent
violence.'
Islamic groups
groups as "rare but worrisome," but also adds that "access to quality education
alone cannot dissuade all vulnerable youth from
from joining
joining terrorist
terrorist groups."g
groups."'
even in
in more
more moderate
moderate ("quietist")
("quietist") schools,
schools, students
students are
One source reports that even
Some
"immoral" and
and "materialistic"
"materialistic" Western
Western culture.9
culture. 9 Some
often instructed to reject the "immoral"
Western and Islamic educators also express concern that these quietist madrasas, with
pedagogical techniques,
techniques, such as rote
rote memorization,
memorization,
their defined curricula and dated pedagogical
prepared for the
the modern
modem workforce.
workforce.
produce individuals
individuals who
produce
who are neither skilled nor prepared
of the madrasa system view its traditional pedagogical approach as a way to
Defenders of
preserve an authentic Islamic
Islamic heritage.
heritage. Because most madrasa graduates have access to
of education, they commonly are employed in the religious sector
only to a limited type of
as preachers, prayer leaders, and Islamic scholars.
Socio-Economic Factors. Madrasas offer a free education, room, and board to
their students,
students, and thus
thus they
they appeal
appeal to
to impoverished
impoverished families
families and
and individuals.
individuals. On the
whole, these religious schools are supported by private donations from Muslim believers
of zakat -— one
through a process of
of alms-giving known in Arabic as zakat. The practice of
of the five pillars
of
pillars of the
the Islamic
Islamic faith
faith-—prescribes
prescribes that
that aafixed
fixedproportion
proportion of
ofone's
one's income
be given to specified charitable causes, and traditionally a portion of zakat has endowed
10
religious education.
Almost all
all madrasas are intended for educating boys, although
religious
education:6
Almost
there are a small number of madrasas for girls.
5
"StrengtheningEducation
Educationin
in the
theMuslim
Muslim World,"
World," USAID
USAID Issue
Issue Paper No.
No.2,
"Strengthening
2, June 2003.
Nov.lDec. 2002, iss. 133; Anna
6 Husain Haqqani, "Islam's
"Islam's Medieval Outposts," Foreign Policy, Nov./Dec.
aI, "School by the Book,"Newsweek, March 11,
11,2002.
Kuchment, et al,
2002.
7 Somewriters
writershave
have implied
implied that all madrasas are harbors of
'Some
of militancy. See, for example, Jessica
Jessica
Stern, "Preparing for a War on Terrorism," Current History 100, iss. 649 (2001): 355-357; and
Alan Richards "At War with Utopian Fanatics," Middle East Policy 8, iss. 4 (2001).
8
"Strengthening Education in the Muslim World," op. cit.
9
Haqqani, "Islam's Medieval Outposts," op. cit.
The traditional
traditional zakat is one-fortieth
one-fortieth of a person's wealth,
wealth, but
but there
there are
are varying
varying Quranic
Quranic
The
of this point. See Jonathan
interpretations of
interpretations
Jonathan Benthall,
Benthall, "Financial Worship: The Quranic Injunction
of the Royal Anthropological Institute 5, no.
1999): 27-42.
to Almsgiving," Journal of
no. l(London, 1999):
10
ACLURM002800
CRS-4
Examples of the Current State of Madrasas
Role of Saudi
Saudi Arabia.
Arabia. In recent years,
years, the dissemination
dissemination of
of Saudi
Saudi Arabian
Arabian
Role
of aa Saudi
Saudi educational
educational curriculum
curriculum have
donations to Islamic
Islamic charities
charities and the export of
donations
Although in
in Saudi
Saudi Arabia
Arabia itself,
itself, schools
schools teach subjects
received worldwide
worldwide attention.
attention. Although
beyond religious studies, conservative Islamic teachings permeate the Saudi educational
structure. Viewing
Viewing Saudi
Saudi Arabia
Arabia with
with greater
greater scrutiny
scrutiny following
following the
system structure.
the events
events of
September 11, experts have maintained that Saudi school curricula foster anti-Western
anti-Semitic sentiments.
Saudi official
official textbooks also reportedly denounce
and anti-Semitic
sentiments. Saudi
denounce Shi'a
Islam as well as any popular Islamic practices that do not agree with Wahhabi beliefs. 11
In response to such allegations and following a review of
of schoolbooks in 2002, the Saudi
of a Saudi government survey, 5% ofthe
minister stated
stated that, in light of
foreign minister
of the material
material was
10% questionable, while 85% called for understanding with
considered "horrible" and 10%
Shortlythereafter,
thereafter,the
the government
government vowed
vowed to remove objectionable
other religious
religious faiths.
faiths.'12 Shortly
train teachers in promoting tolerance,
tolerance, but skeptics
skeptics question the extent to
parts and to train
which the government is willing or able to instill reforms in its schools.
On the global front, concern has been expressed over the spread of
of radical Islam
Saudi-funded schools, universities, and mosques, which exist in many countries
through Saudi-funded
including Bangladesh, Bosnia, Indonesia,
Indonesia, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, and even in the United
of Saudi Wahhabism
of more
Some view
view the teaching
teaching of
States. Some
Wahhabism as threatening
threatening the existence of
moderate beliefs
beliefs and practices
practices in other parts
parts of the
the Muslim
Muslim world.
world. However, there are
those who argue
argue that
that aa differentiation
differentiation should
should be made
made between
between funding
funding to
to support
support
those
charitable projects, such as madrasa-building, and funding which has been channeled,
of Saudi
overtly or implicitly, to support extremist teachings in these madrasas. Critics of
policies allege that the Saudi government has permitted or encouraged fund raising by
charitable Islamic
Islamic groups
groups and
and foundations linked
linked to Al Qaeda, which the U.S.
charitable
U.S. government
government
In 2003,
2003, the
the Saudi
Saudi
has identified
identified as
has
as responsible
responsiblefor
forthe
the September
September1111hijackings.13
hijackings.' In
government announced
banning private
charities and relief groups
groups from
government
announced that
that itit was
was banning
private charities
instituted to ensure that the money is
donating money overseas, until new regulations are instituted
14
Theextent
extent to
to which
which these
these government
government
not being channeled
channeled to
to terrorist
terroristorganizations.
organizations.'
The
regulations will be effective remains to be seen.
Pakistan's educational
educational infrastructure
infrastructure
Pakistan. Hosting over 10,000 madrasas,15 Pakistan's
of recent concern in the United States.
Facing an
an economy
economy that is marked by
has been of
States. Facing
many Pakistanis
Pakistanis have turned to madrasas for the
extreme poverty
poverty and underdevelopment,
underdevelopment, many
11 Information on accusations against the Saudi curriculum, in addition to the contents of Saudi
schoolbooks can
Prokop, "Saudi Arabia:
Arabia: The Politics of Education,"
schoolbooks
can be found in Michaela Prokop,
International Affairs 79, no. 1 (London, 2003):77-89.
"The American-Saudi
American-Saudi Relationship: a briefing by HRH Prince Saud al
12 John Duke Anthony, "The
Gulfwire Newsletter, October 13,
13,2002.
Faisal, Minister of Foreign Affairs," Gulfhire
2002.
13
24,2003.
Glenn R. Simpson, "Unraveling
"Unraveling Terror's
Terror's Finances," Wall Street Journal, October 24,
2003.
14 Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency Implements New Regulations Regarding Charities," Press
Release on
12, 2003,
2003, available
available on
the website
website of the
the Saudi
Saudi Arabia
Arabia Embassy
Embassy at
Release
on June
June 12,
on the
[http://www.saudiembassy.net/pressJelease/releasesl03-PR-0612-SAMA.htm].
[http://www.saudiembassy.net/press
release/releases/03-PR-0612-SAMA.htm],visited
visited on
27,2003.
October 27,
2003.
15
"Strengthening Education
Education in the Muslim World," op. cit.
"Strengthening
ACLURM002801
CRS-5
16 However,
However,because
because of
oflinks
linksbetween
between Pakistani
Pakistani
free education,
education, room,
free
room, and
and board.
board.'
madrasas and the ousted Afghan Taliban regime, as well as alleged connections of
of some
madrasas to Al Qaeda, some observers consider the reform of Pakistani schools as an
important component of combating anti-U.S.
anti-U.S. terrorism
terrorism and in helping to stabilize the
17 Offering
Offering financial
financial incentives,
incentives, the
the Pakistani
Pakistani
recently-formed Afghani
recently-formed
Afghani government.
government."
government is encouraging madrasas to register as part of
of what it portrays as an attempt
to monitor their curricula and to ensure that madrasas are not promoting violence.
violence. After
encountering initial resistance, in July 2003, the Pakistani government announced a plan
comply with
with registration
registration procedures
procedures with
with additional
additional
reward those
those madrasas that comply
to reward
1S
benefits, including better
better teacher
teacher training,
training, salaries,
salaries,text
textbooks,
books,and
andcomputers.
computers.'
Other Countries of Interest. Currently, the popularity of madrasas is rising in
Southeast Asia.
Forexample
example in
in Indonesia,
Indonesia, home
home to the
the largest
largest number
number of
parts of Southeast
parts
Asia. For
Muslims in the world, almost 20-25% of
of primary and secondary school children attend
pesantrens (Islamic religious schools).19
schools ).19 InIncontrast
contrast to
to most
most madrasas, Indonesian
pesantrens have been noted for teaching a moderate form oflslam,
of Islam, one that
that encompasses
encompasses
Islamic mysticism
Sufism. However,
However, the
the Saudi-based
Saudi-based charity
charity al-Haramayn,
al-Haramayn, some
some
Islamic
mysticism or
or Sufism.
of which have been named by the U.S. government as conduits for terrorism,
branches of
Indonesia20 prior to the Saudi
reportedly was operating some educational institutions in Indonesia20
of its operations worldwide.
government's2003
2003 order
order requiring
requiring al-Haramayn
al-Haramayn to close all of
government's
Islam, has
Qatar, a country
country which officially
officially adheres
Wahhabist brand of Islam,
Qatar,
adheres to
to the Wahhabist
expressed intentions
intentions to overhaul
overhaul its primary
primary and secondary school system by introducing
expressed
modem instruction
instruction and
classes in Islamic
Islamic studies and
more modern
more
and reducing
reducing the
the number
number of classes
Arabic. This
This reform
reform project,
project, part
part of
ofwhich
which isis being
beingadministered
administered by
by the
the RAND
RAND
Arabic.
Corporation, aims to promote religious tolerance, accountability and decision-making,
while preserving
preserving Qatar's
Some Muslim
Muslim critics,
critics, expressing
expressing a
while
Qatar's cultural
culturalidentity.21
identity.' Some
widespread sentiment in the Middle East and in the Islamic world, resent such reforms,
alleging that they are dictated by the United States and are disrespectful of the native
Islamic heritage.22
heritage. 22
16 Chris Kraul, "The World Dollars to Help Pupils in Pakistan," Lost Angeles Times, April 14,
16
2003.
17
17 "Afghan Leader Condemns Pakistani
BBe Monitoring
Pakistani Clerics
Clerics for
for Training
TrainingTaleban
TalebanFighters,"
Fighters,"BBC
15,2003.
South Asia, September 15,
2003.
18 "Madarassah
Reform in
in Pakistan,"
Pakistan," website
website of
ofthe
the Embassy
Embassy of
of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
18
"Madarassah Reform
Pakistan.
[http://embassyofpakistan.orglpb5.php], visited on October 27,2003.
[http://embassyofpakistan.org/pb5.php],
27, 2003.
19 Ronald A Luckens-Bull, "Two Sides of
of the Same Coin: Modernity and Tradition in Islamic
19
Education in Indonesia," Anthropology and Education Quarterly 32, no.3 (2001):353.
20 JanePerlez,
Quietly Promote
Promote Strict
StrictIslamin
YorkTimes,July
Jane Perlez, "Saudis
"Saudis Quietly
Islam in Indonesia,"
Indonesia," New York
Times, July 5, 2003.
20
21 Erik W. Robelen, "U.S. Institutions Help Shape Education in the Islamic World," Education
Week, May 28, 2003.
21
22 Susan
Susan B.
B. Glasser, "Qatar
"Qatar Reshapes
Reshapes its Schools, Putting English over Islam,"
Islam," Washington Post,
February 2, 2003.
22
ACLURM002802
CRS-6
Current U.S. Policy and Legislation
2002, USAID committed $100 million over five years for general
general
In September 2002,
education reform
The Research
Research Triangle
Triangle Institute
Institute (RTI),
(RTI), aa U.S.-based,
U.S.-based,
education
reform in
in Pakistan.
Pakistan. The
non-profit corporation,
non-profit
corporation, has
has received
received aa USAID
USAID contract
contract for
for $60
$60 million
million of
of this
this aid to
23
Education Sector
Sector Reform
Reform Assistance (ESRA) project in Pakistan.
implement USAID's
USAID's Education
Pakistan.23
also has
has committed
committed additional
additional resources
resources through
through the Middle East
The United States also
received $29 million in FY2002 and $90 million in
Partnership Initiative (MEPI), which received
One of
ofMEPI's
MEPI's goals
goals is
is to
to encourage improvements in
108-11 ).24 One
FY2003 (through P.L. 108-11).24
secular education throughout the Arab world, and MEPI'
s
MEPI's draft strategies have registered
TheBush
Bush
concern over
the rising
rising enrollment
enrollment in
in Islamic
Islamic schools
schools (madrasas).25 The
concern
over the
Administration is requesting $145 million for MEPI
MEPI in
in FY2004.
FY2004. The House Committee
on Appropriations has recommended $45
$45 million for MEPI and for "Islamic outreach"
programs in the FY2004 Foreign Operations
Operations Bill
Bill (H.R.
(H.R. 2800).
2800). The Committee cited the
of education, training and exchanges" but stated that "these funds must be
"importance of
apportioned more
non-Arab Muslim nations"
nations"
apportioned
more equitably
equitably between
between Arab
Arab Muslim
Muslim and non-Arab
(H.Rept. 108-222).
108-222). The
The Senate
Senate report
report (S.Rept.
(S.Rept. 108-106)
108-106) on
on Foreign
Foreign Operations
Operations
(H.Rept.
appropriations (S. 1426) supports the Administration's full budget request for MEPI.
congressional hearings
relationship between
Recent congressional
hearings have
have examined the possible relationship
26
terrorist-financing. There
Thereappears
appears totobe
besome
somelegislative
legislative interest
interest in
madrasas and terrorist-financing.26
improving outreach
improving
outreach and
and educational
educational programs
programsthroughout
throughoutthe
theMuslim
Muslimworld.
world. For
Relations report (S.Rept.
(S.Rept. 108-39) on the
example, the
Committee on Foreign Relations
example,
the Senate Committee
FY2004 Foreign Relations Authorization Act (S. 925) supports "an effective campaign
growinganti-Americanism,
anti-Americanism,
counter credible
credible reports
reports and
and observed
observed evidence
evidence ofofgrowing
to counter
S.Con.Res. 14 and H.Con.Res. 242, resolutions
especially in the Islamic world." Both S.Con.Res.
of Congress regarding the education curriculum in the Kingdom of
"expressing the
the sense of
"expressing
Saudi Arabia," criticize the educational system in
in Saudi
Saudi Arabia.
Arabia. Additionally, H.R. 3137,
assistance or
or reparations
a resolution "to prohibit
prohibit assistance
reparations to Cuba, Libya, North Korea, Iran, Saudi
Arabia, and Syria," lists several specific charges against Saudi Arabia, calling the country
ofWahhabism,
"the center of
Wahhabism, the ultra-purist, jihadist form oflslam."
of Islam."
FY2004 Request
Request for
for Economic Support Funds (ESF) in Pakistan,
The Bush Administration's
Administration's FY2004
under which educational programs would be administered, is $200 million.
million
23
CRSReport
Report RS21457, The Middle
'24CRS
Middle East
East Partnership
Partnership Initiative:
Initiative: An
An Overview, by Jeremy Sharp.
"The Middle
Middle East
East Partnership
Partnership Initiative
Initiative Programming
Programming Guide," USAID/Asia
USAIDIAsia &
25 "The
& Near East
Bureau and Department of
of State/Near East Affairs, June 2003.
These include the Hearing
These
Hearing on Terrorism Two Years After
After 9/11, Senate Judiciary Subcommittee
10,2003
on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information, September 10,
2003 and the Hearing
on Terror Financing, Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, July 31,2003.
31, 2003.
26
ACLURM002803