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Go to the following website
Go to the tab for "Virtual Labs". You will be doing the DNA extraction and the Gel Electrophoresis.
Complete this worksheet as you walk through the steps of the labs.
DNA Extraction
1. List three reasons for extracting DNA from a human subject:
1) ________________________________________________________
2) _________________________________________________________
3) __________________________________________________________
2. Where is DNA found in the cell? _____________________
3. From where do we obtain the cells of our test subject? ___________________________
4. List the four steps needed to extract DNA:
1) ________________________________________________________
2) _________________________________________________________
3) __________________________________________________________
4) __________________________________________________________
5. The lysis solution contains detergent, what will this do to the cell?
It also contains proteinase K, what does this do to the cell?
6. What does the salt do to the cellular mixture? _________________________________
7. Why do you need to place a second tube into the centrifuge? ______________________________
After the tube is removed from the centrifuge, what equipment is used to remove the top liquid from
the tube? _____________________________________________
What is in this liquid? ____________________________________
8. Isopropyl alcohol causes DNA to do what? _________________________________
Gel Electrophoresis
1. Gel electrophoresis is used to sort DNA strands according to their __________________
Where do you place the DNA samples on the gel? _______________________________
What makes the DNA move? _____________________
Short strands move [ faster / slower ] than longer strands.
2. Place the steps in the correct order (number them)
______ Load DNA sample into the gel
______ Stain the Gel and analyze results
______ Make the gel
______ Hook up the electrical current
______ Set up gel apparatus
3. In the "Gel Electrophoresis Laboratory", follow the steps to make your own gel, answer the
questions as you go.
a) What is agarose made from? ___________________________________
b) Melted agarose is poured into a ___________________________________
c) What is the purpose of the comb? ___________________________________________
d) The black end generates a ______________ charge, the red end a _______________ charge.
e) The bubbles in the electrophoresis indicate what? _________________________________
f) Staining the DNA will make it show up under a ____________________________________ light.
g) What are your estimates for the number of base pairs in the three bands? ___________________
DNA Fingerprinting
Site: PBS / NOVA - go to , click on Nova
Teachers, then go to Life Science and find the activity on creating a DNA
fingerprint. Direct link: You can also search for this using google by searching
for "create a dna fingerprint"
Objective: Students will learn the steps of DNA fingerprinting by creating a
fingerprint in a virtual lab. They will use this fingerprint to solve a virtual
crime. The virtual lab is interactive and goes through the step-by-step
process of DNA fingerprinting
1. What crime was committed?
2. Who are the suspects?
Creating a DNA Fingerprint
3. What is Step 1?
4. What does a restriction enzyme do to DNA?
5. What is Step 2?
6. Describe agarose:
7. What is Step 3?
8. What is Step 4?
9. What is electrophoresis?
10. Which fragments of DNA will move the farthest?
11. What is Step 5?
12. What is the purpose of the nylon membrane?
13. What is Step 6?
14. How are the probes labeled?
15. What is Step 7?
16. Analyze the DNA. Which one of the suspects is the culprit?
Site 2: Go to
17. Browse the website until you get a good idea what the purpose of the site is. In your opinion, what
is being used for?
18. DNA can be used to solve crimes, but the government also uses it for what other purposes?
19. Name a course that is offered at this site.
20. Look under statistics and find how many offender profiles are stored in your state's database.
What is a database?
Web Lesson: Cloning
Learn.Genetics at -- > Under the "Cell Biology" Menu, Click on "Cloning"
Browse the articles at the site to find the answers to the following questions.
What is Cloning?
1. Define Cloning: _________________________________________________
2. What is the difference between natural twinning and artificial twinning?
3. What is SCNT? ____________________________________________
4. To make Dolly the clone, they first isolated a cell from where?
5. They transferred the nucleus of this cell to where? ____________________
Click and Clone
6. List all the materials needed to clone a mouse.
7. Place the following steps in the correct order.
________ Stimulate cell division
________ Deliver baby
________ Remove and discard the nucleus from the egg cell
________ Isolate donor cells from egg donor and germ cell donor
________ Transfer the somatic cell nucleus into the egg cell
________ Implant embryo into a surrogate mother
8. Explain how the nucleus is removed from the donor egg:
9. What color with the cloned mouse be? _____________ What is the name of this mouse?
The History of Cloning
10. What was the first organism ever cloned using artificial embryo twinning?
11. How did Hans Sermann separate cells from a salamander embryo?
12. What happened to the tadpoles that were cloned from more advanced embryos?
16. Where did John Gurdon obtain cells for his cloned frogs? _________________________________
17. What was the first mammal embryo cloned? ________________________________
18. What were the names of the two cloned calves?____________________________________
19. Cultured sheeps cells were used to create two lambs named _______________________ and
20. What as the first mammal created using somatic cell nuclear transfer? _________________________
Where did the DNA come from for this clone? ______________________
21. Out of 29 primate clones attempted, how many were born? _______
22. How was the clone "Polly" different from the first sheep clone named "Dolly?"
23. What was the first extinct animal cloned? ____________________________________
Why Clone?
24. List four reasons given on the page for justifyig cloning:
25. What is a stem cell ? ___________________________________________
26. Why did CC look different from Rainbow even though they were both clones?
27. What two things would you need to clone a dinosaur?
28. Why would a farmer want to clone livestock? ___________________________________________
29. What are two reasons a person might want to clone a human?
Is it Cloning or Not?
30. For each of the following scenarios, indicate YES (it is cloning) or NO (it is not cloning)
___________Sperm taken from a mole goat is combined with a female's egg in a petri dish. The resulting
embryo is implanted into the female's uterus to develop
___________A sheep embryo, composed of 16 cells, is removed from the mother's uterus and separated
into indivudal cells. Each cell is allowed to multiply, creating 16 separate embryos, which are then
implanted in different female sheep to develop to maturity.
___________A cow with many desirable traits is stimulated with hormones to produce a number of egg
cells. Each of these eggs is fertilized and implanted into a surrogate mother.
___________ In vitro fertilization
___________ Cell nuclei from an extinct wolly mammoth are placed into enucleated cow cells.
Cloning Myths
31. Why is it impossible to make instant clones? _____________________________________
32. Why would Frankie #2 be different from Frankie #1?
33. Give an example of a natural clone: _____________________________________________
34. Humans have been cloning _______________________ for thousands of years.
35. Why does cloning have such a high failure rate?
Review the following site to aid in understanding more on biotechnology.