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Transcript
MET 200
Introduction to
Meteorology
Dr. R. Suseela Reddy
Weather and Climate
 A Satellite’s View of the Weather
 Storms of All Sizes
 A Look at a Weather Map
 Weather and Climate in Our Lives
 Special topic: Meteorology: A Brief
History
Weather Elements
 Temperature
 Precipitation
 Air Pressure
 Visibility
 Humidity
 Wind
 Clouds
Weather Elements
 Air Temperature – the degree of hotness or
coldness of the air.
 Air pressure – the force of the air above an area.
 Humidity – a measure of the amount of water
vapor in the air.
 Clouds – a visible mass of tiny water droplets
and/or ice crystals that are above the earth’s
surface.
 Precipitation – any form of water, either liquid
or solid (rain or snow), that falls from clouds and
reaches the ground.
 Visibility – the greatest distance on can see.
 Wind – the horizontal movement of air.
Key Terms
 Weather: The condition of the atmosphere at any
particular time and place.
 Weather Elements: The elements of air temperature, air
pressure, humidity, clouds, precipitation, visibility, and
wind that determine the present state of the atmosphere,
the weather.
 Climate: The accumulation of daily and seasonal weather
events over a long period of time.
A Satellite’s View of the
Weather
 Geostationary Satellite – A satellite that orbits
the earth at the same rate that the earth rotates
and thus remains over a fixed place above the
equator 36,000 km (22,300 mi).
 Polar Orbiting Satellite – A satellite whose orbit
closely parallels the earth’s meridian lines and
thus crosses the polar regions(800 km) on each
orbit.
A Satellite’s View of the
Weather
 Meridians – The dotted lines running from pole
to pole on a satellite picture.
 Longitude – depicts how far east or west, in
degrees, it is from the prime meridian.
 Parallels of latitude – The dotted lines that
parallel the equator.
GOES East Hurricane SECTOR Visible Image
Satellite’s View of the Weather
Hurricane Tracking Sector (VIS)
View Movie of the Visible Sector
Brought to you by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Key Terms
 Meridian: A great circle of the earth passing through the
poles and any given point on the earth’s surface.
 Longitude: The angular distance east or west on the
earth’s surface from the Prime Meridian(zero meridian).
 Latitude: The angular distance north or south from the
equator of a point on the earths surface, measured on the
meridian of the point.
 Parallels of latitude: The dotted lines that parallel the
equator.
 Middle latitudes: The region of the world typically
described as being between 30° and 50° latitude.
Storms of All Sizes
 Mid-Latitude Cyclonic Storm (Extratropical Cyclone): A cyclonic
storm that most often forms along a front in middle and high
latitudes. (also called a depression or a low).
 Hurricane: A severe tropical cyclone having winds in excess of 64
knots (74 miles per hour).
 Thunderstorm: A local storm produced by cumulonimbus clouds.
Always accompanied by lightning and thunder.
 Tornado: An intense, rotating column of air that protrudes from a
cumulonimbus cloud in the shape of a funnel or a rope whose
circulation is present on the ground.
A Look at a Weather Map
Surface Weather Map
Surface weather map
Regional Surface Map
JSU Meteorology Program
Weather Observations
Date
Observer’s Name
Time of Observation
6/06/05
Monesa Watts
10:02a.m.
Yesterday’s High Temperature
This Morning’s Low Temperature
Total rain/snow last 24 hours
92 F
67 F
1.06 in
Current Temperature
Current Sky Conditions
Weather
72.1 F/ 22.3 C
BKN 040 (7/8 Sc)
RA
Wet-Bulb Temperature
Relative Humidity (%)
Dewpoint Temperature
70.1 F
92 %
67.0 F/19.4 C
Current Pressure
Pressure Tendency
Wind Direction & Speed
30.12 in
Rising (Code 0)
VAR @ 5 MPH
Special or Additional Remarks/Comments:
METAR CODED OBSERVATION:
SPECI KJSU 061502Z VRB04KT 9SM RA BKN 040 22/19 A3012
RMK SLP 200 70106 8/5// T02230194 50xxx
Key Terms
 Wind: Air in motion relative to the earth’s surface.
 Wind Direction: The direction from which the wind is
blowing.
 Front: The transition zone between two distinct air
masses.
 Meteorology: The study of the atmosphere and
atmospheric phenomena as well as the atmosphere’s
interaction with the earth’s surface, oceans, and life in
general.
Cumulonimbus Clouds
reaching high into the atmosphere
Cumulonimbus clouds (Cb) are much larger and more vertically developed than fair
weather cumulus. They can exist as individual towers or form a line of towers called a
quall line. Fueled by vigorous convective updrafts (sometimes in excess 50 knots), the
tops of cumulonimbus clouds can easily reach 39,000 feet (12,000 meters) or
higher.
Lower levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of
water droplets while at higher elevations, where
temperatures are well below 0 degrees Celsius, ice
crystals dominate. Under favorable atmospheric
conditions, harmless fair weather cumulus clouds can
quickly develop into large cumulonimbus clouds
associated with powerful thunderstorms known as
supercells.
Photograph by: Knupp
Supercells are large thunderstorms with deep rotating
updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours.
Supercells can produce frequent lightning, large hail,
damaging winds, and tornadoes.
These storms tend to
develop during the
afternoon and early evening when
the effects of heating by the sun are
strongest. For more information
about supercells and other types of
severe weather phenomena, visit the
Severe Storm Spotters Guide.
Weather and Climate in Our
Lives
 Weather often dictates the type of clothing we wear,
while climate influences the type of clothing we buy.
 Climate determines what crop to plant and when.
 Weather affects how we feel(ex. Arthritis pain is most
likely to occur when rising humidity is accompanied by
falling pressure.
 Headaches are common on days when we are forced to
squint due to hazy skies or a thin, bright overcast layer of
high clouds.
 Heavy fog can restrict visibility at airports, causing flight
delays and cancellations.
Key Terms
 Wind Chill Factor: The cooling effect of any combination of
temperature and wind, expressed as the loss of body heat (effects tells
us its much colder than it really is).
 Chinook Wind: A warm dry wind on the eastern side of the Rocky
Mountains (some people often become irritable and depressed).
 Severe Thunderstorm: An intense thunderstorm capable of
producing heavy showers, flash floods, hail, strong and gusty surface
winds, and tornadoes.
 Flash Flood: A flood that rises and falls quite rapidly with little or no
advance warning, usually as the result of intense rainfall over a
relatively small area.
 Downburst: A severe localized downdraft that can be experienced
beneath a severe thunderstorm.
 Wind shear: The rate of change of wind speed or wind direction
over a given distance.
NOTES
 On a hot, humid day we normally feel
uncomfortably warm and blame it on the
humidity. If our bodies overheat, heat exhaustion
or heat stroke may result.
 Each summer scorching heat waves take many
lives.
 Each year, the violent side of weather influences
the lives of millions. Tornadoes have not only
taken many lives, but annually cause damage to
building and property totaling in the hundreds of
millions of dollars, as a single tornado can level
and entire section of a town.
 On the average, more people die in the United
States from floods and flash floods than from any
other natural disaster.
About the NWS
Weather Forecast/Professional
Organizations
 TV Broadcast Meteorologist(I.e. Weather
Channel, Local News)
 National Weather Service
 NOAA Weather Radio
 Website(UCAR, University websitesweather.jsums.edu)
 American Meteorological Society
 National Weather Association
NWS Services
Working Together Keeps Weather
Hazards from Becoming Weather Disasters
Make Sure Your School/Home/Office Has an
All-Hazards NOAA Weather Radio
Thank YOU!!