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7th Grade 3rd Quarter Benchmark Test Study Guide Air Pressure in the Earth’s Atmosphere1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The interaction of air, water, and _sun causes weather. _Radiation_is the transfer of energy in the form of rays or waves. Conduction_ is the transfer of heat by the flow of a heated material. The Sun is the source of all energy in our atmosphere. In general, atmospheric pressure is greatest near earth’s surface and _decreases as you move upward away from sea level. 6. Temperature in the thermosphere and exosphere are very warm. 7. There are _fewer molecules of air at high elevations, so air pressure is less. 8. The _troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere nearest to the Earth’s surface. 9. The _stratosphere contains the highest concentration of ozone. 10.Electrically charged particles are found primarily in the _ionosphere. Wind in the Earth’s Atmosphere 1. Sea and land breeze are caused because the land heats and cools more quickly than water. 2. The Coriolis effect caused by the Earth’s rotation. 3. The westerlies are responsible for the movement of much of the weather across the United States and Canada. 4. When cool, dense air from over the water flows inland, it’s called sea breeze. 5. The air flow of air caused by differences in heating and the Coriolis effect creates distinct wind patterns on Earth’s surface. 6. Not all areas on the Earth’s surface receive the same amount of radiation because Earth’s surface is curved. Cloud formation and weather 1. When water droplets in a cloud combine, become too heavy, and fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, or hail, we are experiencing precipitation. 2. Relative humidity is a measure of the amount of water vapor that air is holding compared to the amount needed for saturation at a specific temperature. 3. Low, layered gray clouds that produce light precipitation are stratus clouds. 4. When air contains as much moisture as possible at a specific temperature, it is at dew point. 5. The temperature at which air is saturated and condensation forms is the dew point. 6. High, thin, white, feathery clouds containing air crystals are usually associated with fair weather, but they can also indicate approaching storms. These clouds are called cirrus clouds. 7. Masses of puffy, white clouds, often with flat bases, that form when air currents rise are called cumulus clouds. 8. Fog is a stratus cloud that forms near the ground.