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RESPIRATION - The Energy Producing System LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS: 1) What is the pathway taken by air in the respiratory system? illustrate with a labelled Ans: The pathway taken by air in the respiratory system: Nostrils→Nasalcavity→Pharynx→Larynx→Trachea→Bronchus→Bronchi oles→Alvolus→ Blood 1). Air enters the body through the nostrils. 2). Air is filtered in the nasal cavity and its temperature is also brought close to that of the body. 3) Pharynx is the Junction of respiratory and digestive system. Epiglottis-a flap-like muscular valve controls movement of air and food towards their respective passages. 4) Larynx is also called sound box. It contains vocal cords. When air passes out of the lungs and over the vocal cords, It causes them to vibrate. This produces sounds on the basis of our speech, song,etc. 5). Trachea is also called wind pipe. It channels air to lungs. 6)Trachea at its lower end divides into two bronchi one leading to each lung. 7) The bronchi further divided into smaller and smaller branches called bronchioles. 8) Bronchioles finally terminate in clusters of air sacs called alveoli in the lungs which are very small and numerous. 9) Gaseous exchange takes place here as blood capillaries take up oxygen and expel carbon dioxide here. 10).Blood carries oxygen to each and every cell of the body and collects CO2 from them. The whole passage from nostrils to alveoli is moist and warm. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: 1) State two similarities between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. OR Write two similarities between respiration with oxygen and without oxygen. Ans: Two similarities between aerobic and anaerobic respiration: 1) Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration release energy by breaking down glucose molecule. 2) The energy produced by these two processes will be used to carry out various functions of the body. 3) Both aerobic and anaerobic respirations take place in a cell. 02) Why does the rate of breathing increases while walking uphill at a normal pace in the mountains? Give two reasons. Ans: The rate of breathing increases while walking uphill at normal pace in the mountains. 1) It is because as we go up the hill above sea level the concentration of oxygen is greatly reduced. So we have to breathe more to get required amount of oxygen. 2) while walking up hill a lot of oxygen is used by our body to release energy from glucose. 3) This leads to lack of oxygen in the cells. 4) we take in oxygen when we breathe. 5) Hence to increase the amount of oxygen intake there is an increase in breathing rate during walking uphill.