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Step-by-Step Instruction
Review and Preview
Columbus Opened the Door
He opened the door to European settlement of
the Americas—and all the devastation, innovation, and reinvention that came with it.
Students have learned about the Renais­
sance and the beginnings of the Age of
Exploration in Europe. Now they will
focus on how the Europeans began
exploring the Americas and Asia and the
effects of the new contacts they made.
—Christine Gibson, Christopher Columbus,
Hero or Villian, in,
October, 2005
The Age of Exploration
Section Focus Question
How did the search for a water
route to Asia affect both Europe
and the Americas?
• Explain what happened to the Vikings who
explored Newfoundland.
Before you begin the lesson for the day,
write the Section Focus Question on the
board. (Lesson Focus: The search for a water
route to Asia brought Europeans to the
Ameri­cas and led to the Columbian Exchange.)
• Describe the expeditions of such Spanish
explorers as Vasco Núñez de Balboa and
Ferdinand Magellan.
Identify Stated Main Ideas Each section
in this textbook begins with a paragraph headed
Why It Matters that presents information you
learned earlier and highlights the importance of
what you will learn in this section. Then, throughout
each section, important ideas are organized by major
red headings that look like this: First Visitors
From Europe.
Key Terms and People
Vasco Núñez de
Read each statement in the Reading
Readiness Guide aloud. Ask students to
mark the statements True or False.
Have students discuss the statements in
pairs or groups of four, then mark their
worksheets again. Use the Numbered
Heads participation strategy (TE, p. T24)
to call on students to share their group’s
perspectives. The students will return to
these worksheets later.
36 Chapter 2
First Visitors From Europe
Reading Skill
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Reading Readiness Guide, p. 43
Section Focus Question: How did the search for a
water route to Asia affect both Europe and the
• Explain the importance of the Columbian
Ask students what they know about the
first European explorers. Encourage
stu­dents to explain what challenges these
explorers faced and what mistaken beliefs
they had to overcome to reach distant
con­tinents. Use the Idea Wave strategy
(TE, p. T24) to elicit responses. After they
state what they already know, address any
mis­conceptions that students may have
about the topic. Remind them to confirm
or revise their statements after they read
the section.
Set a Purpose
Why It Matters The Crusades and the Renaissance led
Europeans to look beyond their borders. Trade with Africa
and Asia expanded, and an era of exploration began. As
European sailors searched for shorter and easier routes to
the riches of Asia, they came into contact with the people of
the Americas.
• Describe the voyages of Christopher
Prepare to Read
Build Background
Columbus claims West
Indies island for Spain.
If you had been in school 50 years ago and your teacher
asked “Who discovered America?” you would probably
have answered, “Christopher Columbus.” But was
Columbus really the first?
In a previous chapter, you have read that ancestors of
today’s Native Americans crossed into the Americas from
Asia thousands of years ago. There are also many theories
about people from Europe, Asia, and Africa who may have
visited the Americas prior to Columbus.
So far, we only have evidence of the arrival of a European
people known as the Vikings. The Vikings were a seagoing
people who originally lived in the part of northern Europe
known as Scandinavia.
In 1963, scientists found the remains of an early Viking
settlement in Newfoundland. The findings supported the
truth of old Viking stories. According to one story, a Viking
named Leif Erikson and 35 others sailed from a colony on
Greenland, in 1001, to investigate reports of land farther
west. They explored the region and spent the winter in a
place they named Vinland.
36 Chapter 2 Europe Looks Outward
Differentiated Instruction
Advanced Readers
Write an Interview Have students
Gifted and Talented
research the life of Christopher Columbus.
Then pair students and have them use
their research findings to write questions
they would ask Columbus in an interview.
Make sure that the questions focus on
exploration, such as, “Why did you want
to explore other lands?” and “To what
places did you sail?” Then have students
present their interviews to the class, with
one student asking the questions and the
other student answering as Columbus
The Voyages of Columbus Vinland existed only in myths for
the next 500 years. Whether Christopher Columbus ever heard the
stories is not known. However, Columbus believed he could reach
Asia and the East by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. He never
suspected that a huge landmass was blocking the way.
Christopher Columbus grew up near Genoa, an important port
on the west coast of Italy. In the 1470s, he settled in Portugal, which
was Europe’s leading seafaring nation. Columbus sailed on Portuguese ships, studied maps and charts, and learned about the world
beyond Europe. From all this he developed his idea for a voyage to
Portugal’s king showed little interest in Columbus’s plan. The
king hoped to reach Asia by following the route Bartholomeu Dias
and other Portuguese explorers were pioneering around southern
Africa. He also believed the world was larger than Columbus had
calculated. Thus, in his view, the voyage would be much longer than
Columbus expected. For these reasons, Portugal refused to finance
such a trip.
Columbus did not give up. He moved to Spain and set his plan
before King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They liked Columbus’s
plan. But it took six years before they finally agreed to provide ships
for the voyage.
Vocabulary Builder
myth (mihth) n. traditional story
of unknown authorship
First Visitors from
p. 36
Vocabulary Builder Before teaching
this section, preteach the High-Use
Words myth and negative before
reading, using the strategy on TE p. T21.
Key Terms Following the instructions
on p. 7, have students create a See
It–Remember It chart for the Key Terms
in this chapter.
Setting Sail In August 1492, about 90 men—
most of them Spaniards—prepared to make the
voyage. Columbus’s ships—the Niña, the Pinta,
and the Santa Maria—were tiny, between 55 and
90 feet long. Sailing with the wind, they covered
up to 170 miles per day.
Columbus predicted that they would reach
Asia in 21 days. After a month at sea, there was no
sight of land. The crew became restless and spoke
of mutiny, or soldiers and sailors rebelling against
their officers. Columbus held firm against the
Finally, on October 12, a sailor spotted land.
Coming ashore in a small boat, Columbus claimed
the island for Spain. Curious islanders soon gathered on the beach. Believing he was in the Asian
islands known as the Indies, Columbus called
these people Indians. The next day he wrote in his
journal, “I intend to go see if I can find the island of
Columbus then sailed southwest to a large
island. At first he thought it was Japan. Actually,
Columbus was on the island of Cuba. His guides
next pointed Columbus west to the island of
Hispaniola. Columbus set sail to return to Spain in
January 1493.
When Columbus returned to Spain
after his first voyage, the king and queen
showered him with honors. But after his
third voyage, he was led off the ship in
chains. Why did his fortunes change?
Columbus managed Spain’s colonies
poorly. The colonies did not produce
much wealth. He also mistreated the
Indians. In time, the king and queen
ordered his arrest. Columbus set sail for
Spain in January 1493.
Biography Quest
How did Columbus trick his crew on
his first voyage?
For: The answer to the question
about Columbus
Web Code: myd-1012
Have students read First Visitors From
Europe using the ReQuest strategy (TE,
p. T37).
Ask students: Why did Columbus try to
sail west across the Atlantic Ocean? (He
hoped to find a water route to Asia.)
After you have completed this discus­
sion, assign the worksheet Journal of
Christopher Columbus. After students
have completed the worksheet, discuss
reasons why Columbus was confused
about where he was when he found
land. (Columbus believed he had sailed to
Asia and did not know that he had arrived
on a completely different continent.)
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Journal of Christopher Columbus, p. 47
Ask: Why do you think coastal
European countries such as Spain,
England, and the Netherlands sent
explorers to North America, but inland
countries did not? (Coastal countries may
have already had fleets of ships, probably for
Section 1 The Age of Exploration 37
Use the information below to teach students this section’s high-use words.
High-Use Word
Definition and Sample Sentence
myth, p. 37
n. traditional story of unknown authorship
The ancient Greeks developed many myths to explain the world
around them.
negative, p. 41
adj. opposite to something regarded as positive
The arrival of Europeans in the Americas had some negative results
for the Native Americans.
Columbus kept a second
travel log, showing a lesser distance
trav­eled to quiet the crew’s anxiety about
the distance from home.
Chapter 2 37
Instruction (continued)
Display the History Interactive trans­
parency European Exploration 1492–
1609 to show students the travels of
European explorers during the fifteenth
through seventeenth centuries.
During the 1400s and 1500s, a
number of daring explorers started
the exploration to find a sea route
to Asia. Critical Thinking:
Draw Conclusions How
did technology contribute
to the age of exploration?
Color Transparencies, European Exploration
n After you have completed this discus­
sion, assign the worksheet on the
biog­raphy of Christopher Columbus to
fur­ther understand his life. After
students have completed the worksheet,
ask: How did Columbus come to live in
Portugal? (He was shipwrecked after
departing from Genoa, Italy, and decided to
remain in Portugal to live.)
The Mariner’s Astrolabe
Sailors used mariner’s
astrolabes to determine
latitude, longitude, and
time of day.
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Christopher Columbus, p. 48
Independent Practice
Have students begin to fill in the Study
Guide for this section.
Interactive Reading and
Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2,
Section 1 (Adapted Version also available.)
Identify Stated
Main Ideas
Monitor Progress
What important idea from
the first paragraph following the
subheading “Spain Backs More
Voyages” is discussed throughout
the passage?
As students fill in the Notetaking Study
Guide, circulate to make sure that they
understand the reasons why Europeans
began to seek a sea route to Asia. If stu­
dents do not have a good understanding,
have them reread the section. Provide
assistance as needed.
Spain Backs More Voyages In Spain, Columbus reported that
there were huge amounts of gold in the land he referred to as the
West Indies. The grateful monarchs made him governor of all he had
claimed for Spain.
In September 1493, he sailed again for the West Indies. This time
he commanded 17 ships filled with 1,500 soldiers, settlers, and
priests. The Spanish planned to colonize and rule the land they
thought was the West Indies. They also intended to convert the
people there to Christianity.
On this second voyage, Columbus discovered other islands,
including Puerto Rico. He found that the men he had left behind on
Hispaniola had been killed by Indians. Not discouraged, Columbus
built another settlement nearby and enslaved the local Indians to dig
for gold. Within a few months, 12 of his ships returned to Spain, with
gold, trinkets, and a number of captives.
On his third expedition in 1498, Columbus reached the northern
coast of South America and decided it was the Asian mainland. Spain
permitted him to try to prove his claims in a fourth voyage, in 1502.
38 Chapter 2 Europe Looks Outward
Differentiated Instruction
Draw Conclusions Possible answer:
Explorers used routes that had already
been proven to be successful in order to
increase their chances of success.
Reading Skill Columbus
believed he could reach Asia by sailing
west across the Atlantic Ocean, and he was
a skilled sailor.
38 Chapter 2
English Language Learners
Less Proficient Readers
Reading a Map Pair students and ask
them to choose two of the voyages depict­
ed on the map on pp. 38–39. For each trip,
have students trace the route with their
finger. Then, identify the conti­nents and
countries the explorer sailed to, in the
order he saw them. Have students write a
detailed description that identifies the
route of each of the two voyages they have
chosen. Remind students that many of the
countries identified on today’s maps did
not have the same names or bound­aries at
the time of the explorers’ voyages. Encour­
age students to use the maps in the front of
their textbooks to identify places using the
names that they have today.
The Continuing Search
for Asia
p. 39
Explorers for Spain
Ferdinand Magellan
Explorers for England
Cabot, 1497
Explorers for the Netherlands
Hudson, 1609
A Caravel
This fast-moving
ship was designed
to sail into the wind.
One of Magellan’s ships,
the Santiago, was a caravel.
Have students read The Continuing
Search for Asia. Remind students to
look for details to answer the Section
Focus Question.
Ask students: How did America get its
name? (A German mapmaker named the
land after the explorer Amerigo Vespucci,
and the name was shortened to America.)
Discuss with students the difficulties
that Magellan and his sailors faced as
the fleet exited the Strait of Magellan.
(They had no idea how far they would have
to travel to reach land or how much food and
other supplies they would need to have.)
Independent Practice
Have students continue to fill in the Study
Guide for this section.
Interactive Reading and
Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2,
Section 1 (Adapted Version also available.)
He returned to Spain two years later with his beliefs unchanged.
Columbus died in 1506, still convinced that he had reached Asia.
Monitor Progress
As students fill in the Notetaking Study
Guide, circulate to make sure that they
understand the challenges the European
explorers faced during their journeys. If
students do not have a good understand­
ing, have them reread the section. Provide
assistance as needed.
Why were Spain’s monarchs interested in the
proposal Columbus made to them?
The Continuing Search for Asia
Many explorers followed the route charted by Columbus.
Another Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made two trips to the
new lands. His trips convinced Vespucci that the lands he saw were
not part of Asia. Upon his return to Europe, he wrote a letter
describing a “new world . . . more densely peopled and full of
animals than our Europe or Asia or Africa.” A German mapmaker
labeled the region “the land of Amerigo” on his maps. The name was
soon shortened to “America.”
Meanwhile, the Spanish continued to explore and colonize. In
1510, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a Spanish colonist, explored the
Caribbean coast of what is now Panama. Hacking his way across the
jungle, he became the first European to set eyes on the Pacific Ocean.
Section 1 The Age of Exploration 39
History Background
Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand Magel­
lan, a native of Portugal, sailed for both
the Portuguese and the Spanish govern­
ments during his lifetime. In his early
career, Magellan enlisted in the Portu­
guese fleet and fought battles off the
African and Indian coasts to help secure
Portuguese supremacy of the sea. After
returning from fighting in Morocco, he
requested a raise in pay from the Portu­
guese king, who refused. After a second
refusal, he offered his services to King
Charles of Spain, who sent Magellan on a
mission to claim the Spice Islands for that
country. It was on this voyage that some of
his crew became the first people to circum­
navigate the globe.
They were eager for the
wealth promised by trade.
Chapter 2 Section 1 39
The Columbian
The Columbian Exchange
p. 41
From Western Hemisphere to Eastern
Maize (corn)
Sweet potato
Have students read The Columbian
Exchange. Remind students to look for
causes and effects.
Have students define the Columbian
Exchange between the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres. Ask: What crops
were taken from the Americas to the
Eastern Hemisphere? (Maize, potato,
sweet potato, beans, peanut, squash,
pump­kin, pineapple, tomato, cocoa, peppers,
avo­cado, and turkeys)
Discuss with students the negative
impact of European diseases on the
Native American population. See that
students understand that many events
have unintended consequences. (Europe­
ans came to the Americas looking for a route
to Asia and ended up exposing Native
Americans to deadly diseases.)
Sugar cane
Disease (smallpox, typhus)
The Columbian Exchange brought many
European, Asian, and African goods to
the Americas. At the same time, American crops and livestock were distributed
to the rest of the world.
Independent Practice
From Eastern Hemisphere to Western
(a) Interpret Charts Identify two kinds of
farm animals that Europeans brought
to the Americas.
(b) Identify Benefits Who do you think
benefited most from the Columbian
Exchange? Explain.
The discovery that another ocean lay west of the Americas did not
end the search for a water route to Asia. In September 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan set out to find an AtlanticPacific passage.
For more than a year, the small fleet slowly moved down the
South American coast looking for a strait, a narrow passage that
connects two large bodies of water. As it pushed farther south than
earlier expeditions, it encountered penguins and other animals that
no European had ever seen before. Finally, near the southern tip of
present-day Argentina, Magellan found a narrow passage. After
38 days of battling winds, tides, and currents, his ships exited what
today is called the Strait of Magellan. They now entered the large
ocean Balboa had seen nine or ten years earlier. Although Magellan
did not realize it, Asia was still thousands of miles away.
Magellan finally reached the Philippine Islands. There, he and
several others were killed in a battle with Filipinos. The survivors
fled in two of the ships. One ship finally reached Spain, in
September 1522. Three years after they had begun, the 18 men aboard
became first to circumnavigate, or travel around, the entire Earth.
Have students complete the Study Guide
for this section.
Interactive Reading and
Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2,
Section 1 (Adapted Version also available.)
Monitor Progress
As students fill in the Notetaking Study
Guide, circulate to make sure that they
understand the Columbian Exchange.
Pro­vide assistance as needed.
Tell students to fill in the last column of the
Reading Readiness Guide. Probe for what
they learned that confirms or invalidates
each statement.
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Reading Readiness Guide, p. 43
What were the contributions of Balboa and
Magellan as explorers?
40 Chapter 2 Europe Looks Outward
Reading Charts (a) Sheep, horses, chick­
ens, pigs, and goats (b) Students will
prob­ably say that Europeans benefited the
most because many Native Americans
died of European diseases.
Balboa became the first
European to see the Pacific Ocean. Magel­
lan’s sailors were the first to circumnavi­
gate Earth.
40 Chapter 2
Differentiated Instruction
English Language Learners
Understanding the Exchange To help
students understand why the Columbian
Exchange was important, ask them to use
the Idea Wave strategy (TE, p. T24) to
brainstorm about items from their native
countries that may be difficult to find in
the United States. Have students compile a
list of these items. Then ask: What are
these items used for? How might they be
helpful to people in this country? Have
students share their responses with the
The Columbian Exchange
These early Spanish voyages set the stage for a great exchange
between the Western and the Eastern hemispheres. The next century
began what is now known as the Columbian Exchange, a transfer of
people, products, and ideas between the hemispheres.
Many of the changes brought about by the Columbian Exchange
were positive. Europeans introduced cows, hogs, and other domestic
animals to the Western Hemisphere. Many food plants, such as
wheat and oats, also arrived on the ships that brought the Europeans.
The exchange also had negative effects on the Americas. Europeans brought germs to which Native Americans had no immunity,
or natural resistance. Smallpox, chickenpox, measles, and other
contagious diseases killed Native Americans by the thousands.
The impact of the Americas on Europe was no less important.
Europeans in the Americas found plants and animals they had never
seen before either. For example, the Americas introduced llamas,
turkeys, squirrels, and muskrats to the rest of the world. More important, however, were the crops that Native Americans taught the
Europeans to cultivate. Today, plants that once were found only in
the Americas account for nearly one third of the world’s food supply.
Assess and Reteach
Assess Progress
Vocabulary Builder
negative (NEHG ah tihv) adj.
opposite to something regarded
as positive
and Critical Thinking
1. (a) Recall Who were the
(b) Apply Information What
problems might there be with
using Viking myths as historical
2. (a) Recall What is the Columbian Exchange?
(b) Support a Point of
View Did the Columbian
Exchange bring more changes to
the Americas or to Europe?
Explain your view.
Reading Skill
Interactive Reading and
Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2,
Section 1 (Adapted Version also available.)
For: Self-test with instant help
Web Code: mva-1021
Key Terms
6. Create a timeline showing early
explorations in the Americas.
Choose three entries that you
think are most significant. For
each choice, write one or two
sentences explaining why you
made that choice.
Fill in the blanks with the correct key
4. Magellan’s ships sailed through a
_____ in order to reach the Pacific
5. The few survivors of Magellan’s
crew were the first to _____ Earth.
1. (a) Explorers from Scandinavia who
preceded Columbus to the Americas
(b)Myths or legends are not able to be
2. (a) The transfer of people, products,
and ideas between the Western and
Eastern hemispheres after Columbus’s
arrival in the Western Hemisphere
For: Help with the History Interactive
Web Code: mvp-0114
3. Identify Stated Main Ideas
Read the text under the heading
“The Columbian Exchange.”
Identify the stated main idea and
explain how the paragraphs
support that idea.
1 Check Your Progress
Have students complete the History
Inter­active activity online.
Progress Monitoring Online
Section 1 The Age of Exploration 41
If students need more instruction, have
them read this section in the Interactive
Reading and Notetaking Study Guide and
complete the accompanying question.
Looking Back and Ahead The voyages of Columbus
marked the beginning of a new historical era. The foothold he established in the Caribbean would expand into a vast empire. By 1600,
Spain would control much of North and South America and would
be one of the world’s richest nations.
Check Your Progress
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Section Quiz, p. 53
To further assess student understanding,
use the Progress Monitoring Transparency.
Progress Monitoring Transparencies,
Chapter 2, Section 1
What impact did the Columbian Exchange have on
Section 1
Have students complete Check Your
Progress. Administer the Section Quiz.
(b)The Columbian Exchange brought
more changes to Europe because many
different kinds of crops and animals
were introduced to Europe.
3. “The next century began what is now
known as the Columbian Exchange, a
transfer of people, products, and ideas
between the hemispheres.” The next
paragraphs describe this transfer in
Students may check their comprehen­
sion of this section by completing the
Progress Monitoring Online graphic
organizer and self-quiz.
4. strait
5. circumnavigate
6. Students should point out significant
entries on their timelines and explain
their importance.
New people, products, and
ideas were introduced in Europe.
Chapter 2 Section 1 41