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Transcript
1
Notes On Darwin
Chapter 4
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Charles Darwin was born in England on the 12th of February 1809 in the tiny merchant town of
Shrewsbury, England, he died on the 19th of April 1882
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Darwin develops the idea of natural selection.
His father, Dr. R.W. Darwin, was as a medical doctor, and his grandfather, Dr. Erasmus Darwin,
was a renowned botanist.
Darwin’s mother, Susanna, died when he was only 8 years old.
Darwin graduated Christ's College with a bachelor of arts degree in 1831, Henslow
recommended him for a naturalist’s position aboard the HMS Beagle.
Darwin was surrounded by religion.
Study a system of all living things.
Darwin always asked questions; he was very curious.
Darwin came from a long line of questioners.
Darwin would kill animals in order to collect specimen to catalog them
Darwin was 22 when he was invited on the voyage.
The ship that he took the voyage was called the H.M.S. Beagle.
It took Darwin and the crew 2 months to travel from England to the Southern Hemisphere.
It took 2 months to cross the equator.
Darwin visited ecologically diverse regions such as Brazil, Chile, Australia, the Falkland
Islands and the Galapagos Islands.
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Darwin’s favorite book was written by Charles Lyell.
“Principles of Geology” was Darwin’s favorite book.
Darwin made the facts adapt to his opinion.
The voyage changed his mind about being a preacher.
Darwin discovered fossils made by big animals.
The 1800s was all about beliefs.
At the point he was a Geologist not a Biologist.
His experiments move slowly.
He married his 1st Cousin
Lived off his family’s wealth
Darwin had 3 of his 10 children die.
The Galapagos Islands that Darwin found most of his findings is owned by Ecuador.
The “Origin of Species” took twenty years before it was submitted for review.
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His 1859 book ‘On the Origin of Species’, detailed much of his research on natural selection, it
contained a large amount of evidence to back up his ideas and became a landmark work in the
field of evolutionary biology.
2
Ecology Notes
Chapter 4
Ecosystem - All of the organisms living in an area together with their physical environment.
Biotic Factors – Are living and once living parts of an ecosystem, including all of the plants &
animals.
Abiotic Factors - are non living parts of the ecosystem.
Organism – An Individual living thing.
An Individual organism is part of a population, a community, an ecosystem, and the biosphere.
Species – A group of organisms that can mate to produce fertile offsprings.
Population – All the members of the same species that live in the same place at the same time.
Community – A group of various species that live in the same place and interact with each
other.
Habitat – The place an organism lives.
Every habitat has specific biotic and Abiotic factors that the organisms living there need to
survive.
Coevolution – The process of two species evolving in response to long-term interactions with
each .
Natural Selection – To describe the survival & reproduction of organisms with particular traits.
Evolution – A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to the
next.
Adaptation – An inherited trait that increases an organism’s chance of survival & reproduction
in a certain environment.
Artificial Selection – The selective breeding of organisms by humans for specific characteristics.
By selecting which domesticated animals and plants breed, humans cause evolution by artificial
selection.
3
Resistance – The ability of one or more organisms to tolerate a particular chemical designed to
kill it.
Invertebrates – Animals that lack a backbone.
Vertebrates – Animals that have backbones.
Mammals – Are warm-blooded vertebrates that have fur and feed their young milk.
Plants - Are many-celled organisms that have cell walls and that make their own food using the
sun’s energy.
Protists – Are a diverse group of one-celled organisms and their many-celled relatives.
(Amoebas & Diatoms)
Fungi – Is an organism whose cells have nuclei and cell walls. (mushrooms)
4
KINGDOM
ARCHAE
BACTERIA
PROTISTA
FUNGI
PLANTAE
ANIMALIA
CELL TYPE
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
NUMBER OF
CELLS
Unicellular
Unicellular
Most
unicellular;
some
colonial,
some
multi
cellular
Most
multicellular;
some
unicellular
Multicellular
Multicellular
CELL WALLS
(if present, what
is it made of?)
Present,
without
peptidoglycan
Present,
without
peptidoglycan
If present,
composed
of
cellulose
Present,
composed
of chitin
Pre
sent,
composed
of
cellulose
Absent
TYPE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Heterotroph
Autotroph
Heterotroph
TYPE OF
REPRODUCTION
Asexual
Asexual (binary
fission)
Asexual or
sexual
Asexual or
sexual
Asexual or
sexual
Sexual
SOME
EXAMPLES
Halobacterium
(likes salt),
Thermoproteus
(likes hot water
Escherichia
coli,
Pneumococcus
Amoeba,
p
aramecium,
slime molds,
algae
Mushrooms
,
yeasts
Mosses,
ferns, pines,
flowering
plants
,
trees
Insects, s
piders,
fish, birds,
mammals