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Propaganda –
session 1
Parcel of Rogues -
Cam ye Over Frae France
Horst Wessel
Shoot the boer
Cam ye o'er frae France? Cam ye down by Lunnon?
Saw ye Geordie Whelps and his bonny woman?
Were ye at the place ca'd the Kittle Housie?
Saw ye Geordie's grace riding on a goosie?
Geordie he's a man there is little doubt o't
He's done a' he can, wha can do without it?
Down there came a blade linkin' like my lordie
He wad drive a trade at the loom o' Geordie
Though the claith were bad, blythly may we niffer
Gin we get a wab, it makes little differ
We hae tint our plaid, bannet, belt and swordie
Ha's and mailins braid, but we hae a Geordie
Jocky's gane to France and Montgomery's lady
There they'll learn to dance, Madam, are ye ready?
They'll be back belyve belted, brisk and lordly
Brawly may they thrive to dance a jig wi' Geordie
Hey for Sandy Don, hey for Cockolorum
Hey for Bobbing John and his Highland Quorum
Mony a sword and lance swings at Highland hurdie
How they'll skip and dance o'er the bum o' Geordie
Read more: Steeleye Span - Cam' Ye O'er Frae France? Lyrics |
Parcel of rogues
Fareweil tae aa our Scottish fame
Fareweil our ancient glory
Fareweil e'en tae our Scottish name
Sae famed in martial story
Nou Sark rins ower the Solway sands
An Tweed rins tae the ocean
Tae mark whaur England's province stauns
Sic a parcel o rogues in a nation!
What force or guile could not subdue
Thro many warlike ages
Is wrocht nou by a coward few
For hireling traitor's wages
The English steel we could disdain
Secure in valour's station
But English gold has been our bane
Sic a parcel o rogues in a nation!
O wad, ere I had seen the day
That Treason thus could sell us
My auld gray heid had lain in clay
Wi Bruce an loyal Wallace
But pith an pouer, till my last hour
I'll mak this declaration We're bocht an sold for English gold
Sic a parcel o rogues in a nation!
TOK Chichiman
My crew (my crew)
My dogs (my dogs)
Set rules (set rules)
Set laws (set laws)
We represent for the lords of yards
A gyal alone a feel up my balls
From them a par inna chi chi man car
Blaze the fire make me bun them (Bun them!!!!)
From them a drink inna chi chi man bar
Blaze the fire make we dun them (Dun them!!!!)
[Verse 1: Craigy-T]
So mi go so, do you see weh I see?
Niggas when ya doin' that
Nuff a them a freak them a carry all them dutty act
Thug niggas wannabees nuff a them a lick it back
It them bring it to we, hold on nuff a cop a shot
Cop a shot rise up every calico go
Rat ta tat, rat ta tat
Every chi chi man them haffi get flat, get flat
Me and my niggas ago make a pack
Chi chi man fi dead that's a fact
[Verse 2: Flex]
So me go so, la la la la la la la la la la la
Nah go make nuh chi chi man walk right a so
From a bwoy a deep we ago dun them right now
Leff him whole family them a blow wow
[Verse 3: Alex]
I see it from far me and them nah go par
A nuff a them bwoy me a smoke man cigar
Me and them coulda never inna wrong bar
Them bwoy deh flex too bizarre
Horst Wessel
The flag high! The ranks tightly closed!
SA marches with a calm, firm pace.
Comrades whom Red Front and Reaction shot dead
March in spirit within our ranks.
[Make] The street free for the brown battalions;
[Make] The street free for the SA man!
Already millions are looking to the swastika, full of hope;
The day of freedom and bread is dawning.
Rollcall has sounded for the last time!
We are all prepared for the fight!
Soon Hitler-flags will flutter over barricades.
Our servitude will not last much longer now!
The flag high! The ranks tightly closed!
SA marches with a calm, firm pace.
Comrades whom Red Front and Reaction shot dead
March in spirit within our ranks.
Zuma – Shoot the Boer
yasab' amagwala (the cowards are scared)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot )
ayasab 'a magwala (the cowards are scared)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
awu yoh
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
awe mama ndiyekele (mother leave me be)
awe mama iyeah (oh mother)
awe mama ndiyekele (mother leave me be)
awe mama iyo (oh mother)
aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer)
dubula dubula (shoot shoot)
aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer)
Propaganda – week 1: Definitions and meanings
“Propaganda is not a modern invention. Ever since
men have lived in communities, the propagandist
has attempted to convince his audience of the
righteousness of his cause and of the weakness,
falsity and wickedness of the opponent’s position.
A limited audience could be secured by word of
mouth. Pictures and then writing extended that
audience. But the printed word was necessary
before propaganda would assume its modern
importance. Martin Luther’s pamphlets are early
examples of the new weapon’s power. Now the
circle has been completed. The radio has restored
the predominant influence of the spoken word,
while it has immeasurably increased the size of its
audience.” (Elmer A. Beller, Propaganda in
Germany during the Thirty Year’sWar, Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press, 1940).
Transmission of propaganda
Radio certainly gave a new dimension to propaganda –
the voice, so important before printing, regained its
role and radio could take that voice into people’s
homes, broadcast mass rallies or meetings and
personalise while making people feel part of the greater
Film also became important, to some extent during the
end of WWI, but then came into real focus under the
Soviet Union, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. But
newsreel was also vitally important in WWII.
TV then added moving images to the spoken voice,
having an major impact during the Vietnam War, during
election campaigns and in propaganda about lifestyles;
and the internet and social media have vastly increased
the range and reduced the costs for the propagandists,
while further personalizing propaganda by sending it to
YOUR phone or ipad/laptop. You, too, can now become
a propagandist.
Why so much attention over the
last 100 years?
Propaganda is thousands of years old. But it came of age
in the 20th century, when the development of the mass
media (and later multimedia communications) offered a
fertile ground for its dissemination, and the century’s
global conflicts provided the impetus needed for its
Propaganda is not a static term, its precise
interpretation changes across time.
“propaganda is the dissemination of ideas intended to
convince people to think and act in a particular way and
for a particular persuasive purpose.”
David Welch, Propaganda: Power and Persuasion, 2013,
p. 2.
Propaganda – good bad or
Garth Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell have provided a
concise, workable definition of the term: "Propaganda is
the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions,
manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a
response that furthers the desired intent of the
Web Dictionary definition: information, especially of a
biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political
cause or point of view.
Merriam-Webster definition – ideas or statements that are
often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to
help a cause, a political leader, a government, etc.
[Interesting that an American publication begins to develop
the view that propaganda is often false]
Another way of putting it: the spreading of ideas,
information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring
an institution, a cause, or a person
: ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to further
one's cause or to damage an opposing cause; also : a public
action having such an effect
The propaganda about
It was only in the 20th century – millennia after man
started using propaganda, that political and social
scientists started examining it and it began to be a term
that didn’t just mean the dissemination of ideas
intended to alter opinions and behaviour but something
inextricable tied up closely with falsehoods and
Why did this meaning of the word begin to take hold?
It was primarily the coincidence of the major growth in
mass media and literacy with the first world war.
Propaganda as a tool in warfare was nothing new, but
the scale of it during WWI was.
Propaganda as a massive con
US communications theorist Harold Lasswell identified
the distaste with which many in USA and W Europe
viewed WWI use of information and disinformation to
mobilize support for the war and persuade Americans to
accept entry into the war
‘they are puzzled, uneasy, or vexed at the unknown
cunning which seems to have duped and degraded
them…These people probe the mysteries of propaganda
with that compound of admiration and chagrin with
which the victims of a new gambling trick demand to
have the thing explained.
Phil Taylor, The Munitions of the Mind, referred to
propaganda as misunderstood, normally perceived as ‘a
dirty word involving dirty tricks, a process designed to
seduce people into believing something that they would
not otherwise have believed’.
Propaganda – dirty tricks or a
spectrum of communicated
The tendency that Taylor and others have identified
that propaganda is by its bad and deceitful comes from
the Lasswell approach and the feeling of many after
WWI that they had been misled about the nature,
causes and objectives of the war and had been lied to
about the suffering on the Western Front, in particular.
The rise of the highly propagandistic Bolshevik
government in the Soviet Union which very actively and
openly declared the key role of Agitation and
Propaganda; the advent of the Nazi Party and its
relentless use of propaganda; the Spanish Civil War;
Mussolini – all these emphasised the “evil” nature of
The resulting image of
Image of propaganda in 20th and 21st century has as a
result been negative. People see only the arguments
of their opponents as propaganda - their own
arguments could never be. Associate propaganda
with war or dictatorship.
During both world wars in 20th century UK, USA and
their allies characterized only enemy opinion-forming
activities as propaganda, and treated them as
composed mostly of lies.
The term propaganda is a stick with which to beat
opponents – essentially “we tell the truth, you deal in
Many people automatically think of Hitler, Goebbels and
the Nazis when they hear the word.
So, how do evil men use propaganda?
The German sociologist Theodore Adorno wrote that - “If it is an impudence to
call people ‘rabble’, it is precisely the aim of the agitator to transform the very
same people into ‘rabble’, that is, crowds bent on violent action without any
sensible political aim, and to create the atmosphere of the pogrom’ (Adorno
[The propagandists’] approach is truly systematic and follows a rigidly set
pattern of clear-cut ‘devices’…and presentation of propaganda itself… constant
reiteration and scarcity of ideas are indispensable ingredients of the entire
technique’. (p.133)
Adorno states that in his analysis of the individual, Freud identified a
“willingness to yield unquestioningly to powerful outside, collective agencies’
(p.134). Freud tries to find out which psychological forces result in the
“transformation of individuals into a mass”. (p.135). “For the fascist
demagogue, who has to win the support of millions of people for aims largely
incompatible with their own rational self-interest, can do so only by artificially
creating the bond Freud is looking for.” (p.135)..[gaining] “actual or vicarious
gratifications individuals obtain from surrendering to a mass”. Those who
become submerged in masses are not primitive men but display primitive
attitudes contradictory to their normal rational behaviour. (p.136). Fascist
agitation centres very much on the leader rather than focusing on causes (1389). The leader promotes an idealization of himself among his followers; while
also posing both as the superman and the average person (140). An “out-group”
to stigmatise and be a focus is v important to avoid intolerance within one’s
own group, which helps, Adorno says quoting Freud, to ensure that individuals
behave as though they were uniform – all distinctions within the group are
subsumed by the attitude to the “out-group” and the only distinction existing
within the group is between the group and its leader and the hierarchy of the
Fascist propaganda and the
Adorno is talking about a certain type of
propaganda which involves the treatment of the
individual as part of a greater mass and tried to
ensure that the individual never thinks in a way
other than as part of the mass. His experience was
of the rise of Nazism and forms of nationalistic
fascism in eastern Europe and he is talking
primarily about their forms of propaganda and
their development of the mass as a homogenised,
brainwashed political force that wouldn’;t
question but both acquiesce and act.
But there is much more to
Propaganda is on a large spectrum.
Stretches from any form of communication that in some ways tries to
alter views, especially if that is linked to changing behaviour.
Very hard to say where the soft propaganda spectrum begins – it is
arguable that it includes anything that propagates a set of values. So,
it could be argued, that the BBC World Service with its inherent values
of respect for human rights, essential adherence to the superiority of
democracy as a political form and an implicit support for a mixed or
market economy, is perpetrating a subtle form of propaganda.
Newspapers, such as the Murdoch papers during the recent election,
certainly demonstrated a form of political propaganda with consistent,
repetitive and clearly politically-motivated attacks on labour and
Miliband, but Scottish edition of the Sun supporting the SNP.
Spectrum then moves through more overt propaganda of some state
media or commercially-owned media that is clearly pushing an agenda
(Fox, US shock-jocks) to the end that would include Soviet, apathe-dSouth Africa and then Nazi and hate broadcasting.
Do intent and content define propaganda
rather than just values?
Soules (Media, Persuasion and Propaganda, 2015) argues that Propaganda
involves systematic and deliberate attempts to sway mass opinion in favour
of whoever is sending the message; and, that persuasion moves toward
propaganda when it is consciously misleading or exploits beliefs, values and
attitudes for the propagandists’ benefit.
I would argue that propaganda doesn’t have to be misleading – you can tell
the truth or be sincere but also be propagandising. The original Catholic
Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith was not misleading people
about its version of the Christian faith but was trying to communicate its
message to spread the faith and stop the spread of Protestantism.
Ellul in Propaganda: the Formation of Men’s Attitudes, identifies political
propaganda which has specific goals and differs from advertising or socially
responsible communications; agitational propaganda, which aims to
mobolize for revolution, war, change or reform; vertical propaganda (from
above); and irrational which appeals to emotion, myths, prejudice rather
than reason.
He argues that propaganda is about making the individual part of the mass
and that propaganda is addressed to the mass and the individual in order to
elicit behaviour. He, along with Jowett and O’Donnell, see propaganda as
working on existing predispositions in the audience or only creating new
attitudes when circumstances change.
Gramsci – propaganda and
Antonio Gramsci – Italian communist leader and theoretician – in
his Prison Notebooks stressed the way that propagandising on
behalf of a dominant or ruling ideology maintains political
control by governments and elite groups and legitimises control.
The ruling ideas become part of a system of elite or class
hegemony and are taken for granted.
So, in capitalist societies it is taken for granted that capitalism
and the market are expressions of economic freedom and are
the only true guarantors of political freedom and liberal
democracy. Questions is, whose freedom?
The way that dominant ideas or ideologies are framed by the
media and other forms of communication are, in this view, a
form of political and social propaganda that support the status
quo and suppress opposing ideas. This approach has a less
obviously radical representation in Herman and Chomsky’s
Manufacturing Consent.