Propaganda – session 1 Parcel of Rogues - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLufwtSZiIs Cam ye Over Frae France https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOcHZTRKIlU TOK https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3OD3n4-Cvo Horst Wessel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MD6oDnm43HA Shoot the boer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHLTKZ05zM4 Lyrics Cam ye o'er frae France? Cam ye down by Lunnon? Saw ye Geordie Whelps and his bonny woman? Were ye at the place ca'd the Kittle Housie? Saw ye Geordie's grace riding on a goosie? Geordie he's a man there is little doubt o't He's done a' he can, wha can do without it? Down there came a blade linkin' like my lordie He wad drive a trade at the loom o' Geordie Though the claith were bad, blythly may we niffer Gin we get a wab, it makes little differ We hae tint our plaid, bannet, belt and swordie Ha's and mailins braid, but we hae a Geordie Jocky's gane to France and Montgomery's lady There they'll learn to dance, Madam, are ye ready? They'll be back belyve belted, brisk and lordly Brawly may they thrive to dance a jig wi' Geordie Hey for Sandy Don, hey for Cockolorum Hey for Bobbing John and his Highland Quorum Mony a sword and lance swings at Highland hurdie How they'll skip and dance o'er the bum o' Geordie Read more: Steeleye Span - Cam' Ye O'er Frae France? Lyrics | MetroLyrics Parcel of rogues Fareweil tae aa our Scottish fame Fareweil our ancient glory Fareweil e'en tae our Scottish name Sae famed in martial story Nou Sark rins ower the Solway sands An Tweed rins tae the ocean Tae mark whaur England's province stauns Sic a parcel o rogues in a nation! What force or guile could not subdue Thro many warlike ages Is wrocht nou by a coward few For hireling traitor's wages The English steel we could disdain Secure in valour's station But English gold has been our bane Sic a parcel o rogues in a nation! O wad, ere I had seen the day That Treason thus could sell us My auld gray heid had lain in clay Wi Bruce an loyal Wallace But pith an pouer, till my last hour I'll mak this declaration We're bocht an sold for English gold Sic a parcel o rogues in a nation! TOK Chichiman My crew (my crew) My dogs (my dogs) Set rules (set rules) Set laws (set laws) We represent for the lords of yards A gyal alone a feel up my balls [Chorus:] From them a par inna chi chi man car Blaze the fire make me bun them (Bun them!!!!) From them a drink inna chi chi man bar Blaze the fire make we dun them (Dun them!!!!) [Verse 1: Craigy-T] So mi go so, do you see weh I see? Niggas when ya doin' that Nuff a them a freak them a carry all them dutty act Thug niggas wannabees nuff a them a lick it back It them bring it to we, hold on nuff a cop a shot Cop a shot rise up every calico go Rat ta tat, rat ta tat Every chi chi man them haffi get flat, get flat Me and my niggas ago make a pack Chi chi man fi dead that's a fact [Chorus] [Verse 2: Flex] So me go so, la la la la la la la la la la la Nah go make nuh chi chi man walk right a so From a bwoy a deep we ago dun them right now Leff him whole family them a blow wow [Verse 3: Alex] I see it from far me and them nah go par A nuff a them bwoy me a smoke man cigar Me and them coulda never inna wrong bar Them bwoy deh flex too bizarre Horst Wessel The flag high! The ranks tightly closed! SA marches with a calm, firm pace. Comrades whom Red Front and Reaction shot dead March in spirit within our ranks. [Make] The street free for the brown battalions; [Make] The street free for the SA man! Already millions are looking to the swastika, full of hope; The day of freedom and bread is dawning. Rollcall has sounded for the last time! We are all prepared for the fight! Soon Hitler-flags will flutter over barricades. Our servitude will not last much longer now! The flag high! The ranks tightly closed! SA marches with a calm, firm pace. Comrades whom Red Front and Reaction shot dead March in spirit within our ranks. Zuma – Shoot the Boer yasab' amagwala (the cowards are scared) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) ayeah dubula dubula (shoot shoot ) ayasab 'a magwala (the cowards are scared) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) awu yoh dubula dubula (shoot shoot) aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) awe mama ndiyekele (mother leave me be) awe mama iyeah (oh mother) awe mama ndiyekele (mother leave me be) awe mama iyo (oh mother) aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer) dubula dubula (shoot shoot) aw dubul'ibhunu (shoot the Boer) Propaganda – week 1: Definitions and meanings “Propaganda is not a modern invention. Ever since men have lived in communities, the propagandist has attempted to convince his audience of the righteousness of his cause and of the weakness, falsity and wickedness of the opponent’s position. A limited audience could be secured by word of mouth. Pictures and then writing extended that audience. But the printed word was necessary before propaganda would assume its modern importance. Martin Luther’s pamphlets are early examples of the new weapon’s power. Now the circle has been completed. The radio has restored the predominant influence of the spoken word, while it has immeasurably increased the size of its audience.” (Elmer A. Beller, Propaganda in Germany during the Thirty Year’sWar, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1940). Transmission of propaganda Radio certainly gave a new dimension to propaganda – the voice, so important before printing, regained its role and radio could take that voice into people’s homes, broadcast mass rallies or meetings and personalise while making people feel part of the greater whole. Film also became important, to some extent during the end of WWI, but then came into real focus under the Soviet Union, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. But newsreel was also vitally important in WWII. TV then added moving images to the spoken voice, having an major impact during the Vietnam War, during election campaigns and in propaganda about lifestyles; and the internet and social media have vastly increased the range and reduced the costs for the propagandists, while further personalizing propaganda by sending it to YOUR phone or ipad/laptop. You, too, can now become a propagandist. Why so much attention over the last 100 years? Propaganda is thousands of years old. But it came of age in the 20th century, when the development of the mass media (and later multimedia communications) offered a fertile ground for its dissemination, and the century’s global conflicts provided the impetus needed for its growth.” Propaganda is not a static term, its precise interpretation changes across time. “propaganda is the dissemination of ideas intended to convince people to think and act in a particular way and for a particular persuasive purpose.” David Welch, Propaganda: Power and Persuasion, 2013, p. 2. Propaganda – good bad or neutral? Garth Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell have provided a concise, workable definition of the term: "Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.“ Web Dictionary definition: information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view. Merriam-Webster definition – ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a cause, a political leader, a government, etc. [Interesting that an American publication begins to develop the view that propaganda is often false] Another way of putting it: the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person : ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause; also : a public action having such an effect The propaganda about propaganda It was only in the 20th century – millennia after man started using propaganda, that political and social scientists started examining it and it began to be a term that didn’t just mean the dissemination of ideas intended to alter opinions and behaviour but something inextricable tied up closely with falsehoods and deception. Why did this meaning of the word begin to take hold? It was primarily the coincidence of the major growth in mass media and literacy with the first world war. Propaganda as a tool in warfare was nothing new, but the scale of it during WWI was. Propaganda as a massive con trick US communications theorist Harold Lasswell identified the distaste with which many in USA and W Europe viewed WWI use of information and disinformation to mobilize support for the war and persuade Americans to accept entry into the war ‘they are puzzled, uneasy, or vexed at the unknown cunning which seems to have duped and degraded them…These people probe the mysteries of propaganda with that compound of admiration and chagrin with which the victims of a new gambling trick demand to have the thing explained. Phil Taylor, The Munitions of the Mind, referred to propaganda as misunderstood, normally perceived as ‘a dirty word involving dirty tricks, a process designed to seduce people into believing something that they would not otherwise have believed’. Propaganda – dirty tricks or a spectrum of communicated content? The tendency that Taylor and others have identified that propaganda is by its bad and deceitful comes from the Lasswell approach and the feeling of many after WWI that they had been misled about the nature, causes and objectives of the war and had been lied to about the suffering on the Western Front, in particular. The rise of the highly propagandistic Bolshevik government in the Soviet Union which very actively and openly declared the key role of Agitation and Propaganda; the advent of the Nazi Party and its relentless use of propaganda; the Spanish Civil War; Mussolini – all these emphasised the “evil” nature of propaganda. The resulting image of propaganda Image of propaganda in 20th and 21st century has as a result been negative. People see only the arguments of their opponents as propaganda - their own arguments could never be. Associate propaganda with war or dictatorship. During both world wars in 20th century UK, USA and their allies characterized only enemy opinion-forming activities as propaganda, and treated them as composed mostly of lies. The term propaganda is a stick with which to beat opponents – essentially “we tell the truth, you deal in propaganda”. Many people automatically think of Hitler, Goebbels and the Nazis when they hear the word. So, how do evil men use propaganda? The German sociologist Theodore Adorno wrote that - “If it is an impudence to call people ‘rabble’, it is precisely the aim of the agitator to transform the very same people into ‘rabble’, that is, crowds bent on violent action without any sensible political aim, and to create the atmosphere of the pogrom’ (Adorno pp.132-3)… [The propagandists’] approach is truly systematic and follows a rigidly set pattern of clear-cut ‘devices’…and presentation of propaganda itself… constant reiteration and scarcity of ideas are indispensable ingredients of the entire technique’. (p.133) Adorno states that in his analysis of the individual, Freud identified a “willingness to yield unquestioningly to powerful outside, collective agencies’ (p.134). Freud tries to find out which psychological forces result in the “transformation of individuals into a mass”. (p.135). “For the fascist demagogue, who has to win the support of millions of people for aims largely incompatible with their own rational self-interest, can do so only by artificially creating the bond Freud is looking for.” (p.135)..[gaining] “actual or vicarious gratifications individuals obtain from surrendering to a mass”. Those who become submerged in masses are not primitive men but display primitive attitudes contradictory to their normal rational behaviour. (p.136). Fascist agitation centres very much on the leader rather than focusing on causes (1389). The leader promotes an idealization of himself among his followers; while also posing both as the superman and the average person (140). An “out-group” to stigmatise and be a focus is v important to avoid intolerance within one’s own group, which helps, Adorno says quoting Freud, to ensure that individuals behave as though they were uniform – all distinctions within the group are subsumed by the attitude to the “out-group” and the only distinction existing within the group is between the group and its leader and the hierarchy of the group(145-6). Fascist propaganda and the masses Adorno is talking about a certain type of propaganda which involves the treatment of the individual as part of a greater mass and tried to ensure that the individual never thinks in a way other than as part of the mass. His experience was of the rise of Nazism and forms of nationalistic fascism in eastern Europe and he is talking primarily about their forms of propaganda and their development of the mass as a homogenised, brainwashed political force that wouldn’;t question but both acquiesce and act. But there is much more to propaganda Propaganda is on a large spectrum. Stretches from any form of communication that in some ways tries to alter views, especially if that is linked to changing behaviour. Very hard to say where the soft propaganda spectrum begins – it is arguable that it includes anything that propagates a set of values. So, it could be argued, that the BBC World Service with its inherent values of respect for human rights, essential adherence to the superiority of democracy as a political form and an implicit support for a mixed or market economy, is perpetrating a subtle form of propaganda. Newspapers, such as the Murdoch papers during the recent election, certainly demonstrated a form of political propaganda with consistent, repetitive and clearly politically-motivated attacks on labour and Miliband, but Scottish edition of the Sun supporting the SNP. Spectrum then moves through more overt propaganda of some state media or commercially-owned media that is clearly pushing an agenda (Fox, US shock-jocks) to the end that would include Soviet, apathe-dSouth Africa and then Nazi and hate broadcasting. Do intent and content define propaganda rather than just values? Soules (Media, Persuasion and Propaganda, 2015) argues that Propaganda involves systematic and deliberate attempts to sway mass opinion in favour of whoever is sending the message; and, that persuasion moves toward propaganda when it is consciously misleading or exploits beliefs, values and attitudes for the propagandists’ benefit. I would argue that propaganda doesn’t have to be misleading – you can tell the truth or be sincere but also be propagandising. The original Catholic Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith was not misleading people about its version of the Christian faith but was trying to communicate its message to spread the faith and stop the spread of Protestantism. Ellul in Propaganda: the Formation of Men’s Attitudes, identifies political propaganda which has specific goals and differs from advertising or socially responsible communications; agitational propaganda, which aims to mobolize for revolution, war, change or reform; vertical propaganda (from above); and irrational which appeals to emotion, myths, prejudice rather than reason. He argues that propaganda is about making the individual part of the mass and that propaganda is addressed to the mass and the individual in order to elicit behaviour. He, along with Jowett and O’Donnell, see propaganda as working on existing predispositions in the audience or only creating new attitudes when circumstances change. Gramsci – propaganda and hegemony Antonio Gramsci – Italian communist leader and theoretician – in his Prison Notebooks stressed the way that propagandising on behalf of a dominant or ruling ideology maintains political control by governments and elite groups and legitimises control. The ruling ideas become part of a system of elite or class hegemony and are taken for granted. So, in capitalist societies it is taken for granted that capitalism and the market are expressions of economic freedom and are the only true guarantors of political freedom and liberal democracy. Questions is, whose freedom? The way that dominant ideas or ideologies are framed by the media and other forms of communication are, in this view, a form of political and social propaganda that support the status quo and suppress opposing ideas. This approach has a less obviously radical representation in Herman and Chomsky’s Manufacturing Consent.