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Keystone Review
Week One, Period One
One or more letters occurring as a
bound form attached to the
beginning, end, or base of a word
and serving to produce a derivative
word or an inflectional form (e.g., a
prefix or suffix).
Example: ex-President (The affix is
the prefix ex-.); laughing (The affix is
the suffix ing.)
An implied or indirect reference in
literature to a familiar person, place, or
Example: It’s no wonder everyone refers
to Mary as another Mother Teresa in the
making; she loves to help and care after
people everywhere- from the streets to
her own friends.
In the example the author uses the
mention of Mother Teresa to indicate the
sort of qualities that Mary has.
The range of associations that a
word or phrase suggests in addition
to its dictionary meaning.
Shakespeare in his Sonnet 18 says:
“Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s
Here, the phrase “a Summer’s Day”
implies the fairness of his beloved.
 Denotation refers to the use of the dictionary
definition or literal meaning of a word.
 Example:
 They built a house.
 In the above sentence, house is meant literally
as in a building where a family lives. If the word
"home" was used instead in the above sentence
in place of "house", the meaning would not be
so literal as there are many emotions
associated with the word "home" beyond
simply the structure where people live.
A narrative device, often used at the
beginning of a work that provides
necessary background information
about the characters and their
Propaganda techniques and
persuasive tactics are used to
influence people to believe,
buy or do something.
Name-calling is an attack
on a person instead of an
Bandwagon tries to persuade
the reader to do, think or buy
something because it is
popular or because
“everyone” is doing it.
Red herring is an attempt to
distract the reader with
details not relevant to the
Emotional appeal tries to
persuade the reader by using
words that appeal to the
reader’s emotions instead of
to logic or reason.
Testimonial attempts to
persuade the reader by using
a famous person to endorse a
product or idea (for instance,
the celebrity endorsement).
Repetition attempts to
persuade the reader by
repeating a message over and
over again.
Sweeping generalization
(stereotyping) makes an
oversimplified statement
about a group based on
limited information.
Circular argument states a
conclusion as part of the
proof of the argument.
Appeal to numbers, facts, or
statistics attempts to
persuade the reader by
showing how many people
think something is true.