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Bias is an unfair preference for or against something.
Sometimes, we feel so strongly about something, we want to persuade others to share our feelings.
Authors sometimes try to persuade their readers.
Why unfair? It is based on an opinion or generalization—not on solid facts.
Example: “Cats are not good for anything.” (bias against cats)
Propaganda is information used to influence the way people think in order to:
• gain support for a cause.
• convince them to buy something.
• convince them to do something.
Propaganda techniques will twist facts to sell readers on an idea—to convince them to agree with the writer.
Propaganda is common in politics and advertising.
Propaganda will usually include some type of bias, sometimes extreme.
Propaganda Techniques:
Media Techniques
o Example- Seeing a commercial for food makes
you want to eat that food.
o Attack on a person instead of an issue.
o Tries to persuade the reader to do, think, or buy
something because it is popular or because
“everyone is doing it.”
Logical Appeal
o A logical appeal would appeal to one's logic (thinking). For
instance, using statistics from reputable studies to prove your point.
Emotional Appeal
o Tries to persuade the reader by using words that appeal to the
reader’s emotions instead of appealing to logic or reason.
o Attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to
endorse (promote) a product or idea (for instance—celebrity
o Attempts to persuade by repeating a message over and over