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Transcript
What is “cultural diffusion”?
A.
B.
C.
D.
One culture taking over another
Cultures sharing and blending ideas
Destruction of a culture
A culture remaining the same
#1
ANSWER: B
After the Peloponnesian War was over,
what kingdom took over Greece?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sparta
Persia
Athens
Macedonia
#2
ANSWER: D
Who was Alexander talking about when he said,
“I am indebted to my father for living, but I am
indebted to my teacher for living WELL.”
A.
B.
C.
D.
Aristotle
Plato
Archimedes
Xerxes
#3
ANSWER: A
What country was Alexander’s army in when
his soldiers demanded to return home after
being away for 11 years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Egypt
Persia
Greece
India
#4
ANSWER: D
What city became the center of trade, learning,
and Hellenistic culture in the Mediterranean
world during the time of Alexander?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Athens
Rome
Alexandria
Persepolis
#5
ANSWER: C
THE ROMAN
REPUBLIC
and
THE ROMAN
EMPIRE
Essential Question:
What were the lasting
characteristics of the Roman
Republic and the Roman Empire?
In addition to Greece, another
significant classical civilization
was ancient Rome
Impact of Geography on Rome
Identify one GEOGRAPHIC FEATURE and propose
how it might impact the culture of Rome
The Geography of Rome
Rome was located on the Italian peninsula
along the Mediterranean Sea
The Romans were influenced by the Greeks and
a neighboring tribe called the Etruscans
The Culture of Ancient Rome
Roman religion was
polytheistic and based on
the Greek gods (usually only
the names changed)
The Culture of Ancient Rome
Roman
writing was
called Latin;
it was based
on Greek
writing
The Culture of Ancient Rome
Roman architecture borrowed
heavily from Greek styles
The Culture of Ancient Rome
Like Greek agoras, Roman cities had a forum
for markets and public gatherings
Ancient Roman Society
Roman society was divided into three major groups
At the top were the nobles (called patricians);
they controlled most of the land and held key
military and government positions
Ancient Roman Society
Roman society was divided into three major groups
Patricians made up 5% of all Roman citizens
The Life of the Patricians
Ancient Roman Society
Most Roman people were commoners
(called plebeians); they were farmers,
shopkeepers, or peasants
Ancient Roman Society
Plebeians paid the majority of taxes
collected in the Roman Republic; they
made up 95% of Roman citizens
The Life of the Plebeians
Ancient Roman Society
At the bottom of society
were slaves and residents
of the Roman Republic
who were not Roman
Quick Class
Discussion:
Based upon
this image,
what was
Roman
government
like?
The Government of Ancient Rome
When Rome
was first
founded, it
was ruled by
kings; but in
509 BCE, the
Romans
created a
republic
The Government of Ancient Rome
A republic is a
form of
government in
which citizens
have the power
to elect their
leaders
The most important feature of the republic
was the Senate, whose 300 members were
elected by citizens to make laws and taxes
The Government of Ancient Rome
In 451 BCE, government
officials wrote down
Rome’s laws onto the
Twelve Tables, which
were hung in the forum
for all citizens to see
The Twelve Tables were
based on the idea that
all citizens of Rome had
a right to the protection
of the law
The Government of Ancient Rome
The Twelve
Tables made
clear how the
law would be
applied to
Roman citizens
Real Laws from the 12 Tables
■
A dreadfully deformed child
shall be quickly killed.
■ If a father sells his son
three times, the son
shall be free from his
father.
Real Laws from the 12 Tables
■If one is slain
while committing
theft by night, he
is rightly slain.
Real Laws from the 12 Tables
■A person who had been found
guilty of giving false witness
shall be hurled down from the
Tarpeian Rock.
■The women shall not tear
their faces nor wail on
account of the funeral. 
The United States also has
a republican government,
very similar to the one of
Ancient Rome
The Roman Military
Rome was protected by
an advanced army of
professional soldiers
(not part-time soldiers
who were farmers or
merchants by trade)
The Roman Military
Rome had the largest army in the Mediterranean
at the time; it was also highly organized
The Roman soldiers were divided into
groups of 5000 men called legions
Each legion was divided into smaller groups
of 80 men (called centuries) commanded by
elite soldiers called centurions
The highly organized command structure
ensured that legions could be rapidly
deployed against the enemy
Advances in military technology (such as
catapults) enabled the professional Roman
soldiers to not only defend the Romans’
territory, but to expand it
THE PUNIC WARS
The Romans went to war with a
neighboring kingdom, Carthage
(based in northern Africa)
THE PUNIC WARS
The Carthaginians engaged the
Romans in three long wars over the
course of about a hundred years
THE PUNIC WARS
Led by the great
general Hannibal,
the Carthaginians
nearly defeated
the Romans in
the second war;
they invaded the
Italian peninsula
and almost
captured Rome
THE PUNIC WARS
The Romans held the Carthaginians
off, then completely destroyed
Carthage in their third war
THE PUNIC WARS
With Carthage’s
defeat, the Romans
were then the most
dominant power in
the Mediterranean,
carving out an
enormous empire
Controlling this
massive territory,
though, would
present new
problems for the
Romans
ROMAN TERRITORY
PROBLEMS IN THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
Rome’s expanding
territory brought
wealth, but also
brought issues:
The new lands brought
more slaves, which
created a job shortage
for Roman citizens
Generals who
controlled the army
became more powerful
than Senators
PROBLEMS IN THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
Rome’s expanding
territory brought
wealth, but also
brought issues:
People flocked to the
big cities from farms,
which created food
supply shortages
Struggles for power led
to a series of civil wars
between Romans
JULIUS CAESAR
From the turmoil
within the Roman
Republic, a new
political leader
emerged: a general
named Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
partnered with two
other Roman
politicians to take
control of Rome
(they formed a
triumvirate)
Julius was extremely
popular with the
Roman people, due
to his great military
victories
Julius
Caesar
gathered
more power
to himself,
while
looking to
solve the
Roman
Republic’s
problems by
initiating
reforms
Caesar named himself dictator-for-life in 46 BCE,
which weakened the Senators’ power a great deal
Fearing that he was becoming too
powerful, members of the Roman
Senate conspired to assassinate Caesar
Caesar was cornered and
stabbed to death in the Roman
Senate building, which began
the end of the Roman Republic
The assassination led to another civil war
led by Caesar’s adopted son Octavian and
his best general, Marc Antony
FROM ROMAN REPUBLIC TO
ROMAN EMPIRE
Julius Caesar’s death changed Rome; the
people no longer trusted the Senate to
rule the Roman Republic
FROM ROMAN REPUBLIC TO
ROMAN EMPIRE
Octavian exacted revenge
on the Senators who
assassinated Julius
Octavian soon became
undisputed ruler of Rome,
renaming himself
Augustus Caesar
“Augustus” means “exalted
one”; Julius Caesar’s last
name became the title for
“emperor”
FROM ROMAN REPUBLIC TO
ROMAN EMPIRE
Augustus did away with the
Senators’ power, eventually
ending the representative
government of Rome and
becoming Rome’s first emperor
The Senate still met, but
the emperor had all of
the real power
THE PAX ROMANA
Augustus’ 41 year reign marked the beginning
of a 207-year era of peace, wealth, and
expansion called “Pax Romana” (the “Roman
Peace”) from 27 BCE to 180 CE
The Empire
was over 3
million square
miles in size
and contained
about 80
million people
Pax Romana
Pax Romana became the “golden age” of Rome as emperors like
Augustus built well-paved roads and a modern infrastructure;
they had a merit-based bureaucracy to rule the empire
Roman aqueducts brought water to cities
Roman architects used new styles like
concrete domes to beautify cities
Emperors built arenas and used chariot
races, gladiator events, and theater to
entertain the Roman people
The Roman Coliseum
ROMAN EMPERORS:
THE GOOD, THE BAD, and THE UGLY
Rome would have a wide
range of different
emperors over the years
ROMAN EMPERORS:
THE GOOD, THE BAD, and THE UGLY
Several emperors
were excellent
leaders (like
Trajan and
Marcus Aurelius)
ROMAN EMPERORS:
THE GOOD, THE BAD, and THE UGLY
Some were not so
good; Nero was
ruthless and uncaring
of the Roman people’s
well-being; the legend
is that Nero played his
fiddle while part of
Rome burned (then
blamed Christians for
the fire)
ROMAN EMPERORS:
THE GOOD, THE BAD, and THE UGLY
Commodus was a weak and inept leader,
leading a life of laziness and debauchery
ROMAN EMPERORS:
THE GOOD, THE BAD, and THE UGLY
Domitian was paranoid and devised many
tortures and executions for his enemies
ROMAN EMPERORS:
THE GOOD, THE BAD, and THE UGLY
Caligula was a
psychopath; he
raped whomever
he wanted, killed
for greed and
pleasure, and
thought he should
have been treated
as a god
Despite having some bad emperors mixed in
with the great ones, the Roman Empire grew in
size, power, and glory
But all things come to an end, and the Roman
Empire, for all its greatness, would eventually
decline and fall
CONCLUSIONS
Rome expanded from a city, to
a republic, to an empire
The era of the Roman
Republic introduced
representative democracy
The era of the Roman Empire
led to the Pax Romana and the
“golden age” of Roman
innovation and culture
Closure Activity
Would you rather live during the
Roman Republic or the Empire?
Provide at least 3 reasons why