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Transcript
CLASSIFICATION
Why Classify?
1)
Construct a table with six rows and six columns. Label each
row with the name of a different fruit.
2)
Observe each fruit and choose four characteristics by which
you can tell the fruits apart. Label the columns in your table
with these four characteristics. Fill out the chart.
3)
Record a description of each fruit in your table.
Questions:
What characteristics did you use to describe the fruits?
Based on your table, which fruits are more closely related?
Explain.
INQUIRY ACTIVITY
A
tool that is used to determine the identity of items in
the natural world
 Keys
consist of a series of choices that lead to the
correct name of a given item
 “Dichotomous”
means “divided into two parts,” so
dichotomous keys always give two choices in each
step
DICHOTOMOUS KEYS
 Make
items:
a dichotomous key using the following
 Bicycle,
Automobile. Rock, Tree, Flower,
Human, Dog, Pillow, Book, Shark, Bacteria,
Pigeon
PRACTICE
Science
of describing, classifying,
and naming organisms
TAXONOMY
 Aristotle:
system
 Used
First person to develop a classification
for more than 2,000 years
 Classified
organisms as plants or animals and then
was divided further based on where they lived
HISTORY
 Carolus
Linnaeus: 1750’s Swedish scientist considered founder of
modern taxonomy
 Uses
observations as basis of classification system
 Places
organisms into groups based on similar observable
features such as shape and structure
 Came
up with binomial nomenclature
 Two-word
 Genus
HISTORY
naming system
species
Linnaean
system of classification consists of a
hierarchy of groupings, called taxa (singular taxon)
Taxa
range from kingdom (largest and most
inclusive) to species (smallest and most exclusive)
Kingdom,
Species
Species
Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
are organisms that are similar enough to
produce fertile offspring together
LINNAEUS
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
SIX KINGDOMS
Kingdoms
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
unicellular
Most unicellular,
some
multicellular
Most
multicellular,
some
unicellular
multicellular
multicellular
prokaryotic
eukaryotic
eukaryotic
eukaryotic
eukaryotic
autotroph
heterotroph
# of Cells
unicellular
Nucleus??
prokaryotic
Nutrition
SIX KINGDOMS
auto/heterotroph
auto/heterotroph
auto/heterotroph heterotroph
(absorption)
Major
change to Linnaean system was the addition
of a new taxon called domain (1990).
Taxon
that is larger and more inclusive than the
kingdom
Three
domains of life on Earth:
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukaryota
DOMAINS
 After
Darwin published theory of evolution in 1800s,
scientists looked for a way to classify organisms that
showed phylogeny
 The
evolutionary history of an organism, or how it has
changed over time
 Cladogram:
diagram that shows the evolutionary
relationship among a group of organisms
 Constructed
using derived characters
 Characteristics
that appear in recent parts of a
lineage but not in its older members
EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION
Genes
of many organisms show
important similarities at the molecular
level.
Similarities
in DNA can be used to help
determine classification and
evolutionary relationships
EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION
How
are living things organized for study?
Describe
the system for naming species that
Linnaeus developed.
What
are the seven taxonomic categories of
Linnaeus’s classification system?
Rank
taxa in order starting with largest and
ending with smallest
BIG IDEAS