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Transcript
The Crusades
Causes of the Crusades
• Alexis the leader of the
Byzantine Empire asked for
help because the Muslim
Turks were threatening to
invade.
• In 1095 A.D. at a meeting
with nobles outside of
Clermont, France Pope
Urban II called for a “Holy
Crusade” to gain control of
the Holy Land.
• Pope Urban II
Causes of the Crusades
• Christian pilgrims were
being refused free
access to Jerusalem.
• Crusaders would have
their sins pardoned.
• Many (especially
second sons of nobles
that were not going to
inherit land) were
greedy for new lands
to rule and the
rumored riches of the
Holy Land.
Causes of the Crusades
• Knights were bored
because of the
stability of the period
made them
unnecessary.
• It was thought that
the division between
eastern and western
Christian Church could
be healed.
Pope Urban II: Calling for a Crusade
The Crusade of the Poor
Date
1096
Leaders and Major
Participants Events
Little Peter
and common
peasants
Results
The Crusaders
were
Massacre of
Jews in Europe slaughtered by
to get supplies the Ottoman
Turks
The Crusaders
were shocked
by the wealth
and beauty of
Constantinople
and start
stealing
everything!
The Slaughter of the Crusade
of the Poor
Early Christian Crusades: East
and West
The Christian siege of
Jerusalem
The massacre of Muslims and
Jews in Jerusalem
The Crusaders built European styles castles called
“kraks” in the Holy Land to protect key land routes
to Jerusalem.
The Knight Templar was created to protect
Christian Pilgrims in the Holy Land.
The Knight Templar profited from the
Crusades and became very wealthy.
Hospitallers were another elite
Christian fighting force.
2nd Crusade
The Christian kings discuss plans to attack
Damascus
The 2nd Crusade
Date
1147-1148
Leaders and Major
Participants Events
The French
Declaring
King Louis VII Jihad
and a German
Muslim
king named
armies
Conrad III
gained some
land back,
however
Jerusalem
was not
taken.
Results
It was a
draw!
Nothing
really won
or lost!
Godfrey of Bouillon
Saladin became the new ruler of
the Muslim armies in 1169.A.D.
Battle of Hattin
July 4, 1187
Battle of Hattin
July 4, 1187 A.D.
• Importance: A major turning point in the
Crusades was when the Christian Crusaders
were almost completely destroyed by a
Muslim army led by Saladin on the July 4,
1187A.D. This battle led to the eventual
recapture of Jerusalem by the Muslim
armies and provoked the 3rd Crusade. The
Battle of Hattin stopped major Christian
expansion in the Middle East.
Chaos in Jerusalem!
Jerusalem surrendered to
Saladin in October of 1187
The 3rd Crusade!
Richard the Lionhearted
The 3rd Crusade
Date
1189-1192
Leaders and Major
Participants Events
SaladinMuslim
leader and
Richard the
Lionhearted
Results
Saladin
Richard and
captures
Saladin
Jerusalem in create a
1187.
truce for 3
years.
Richard wins
several
battles but
cannot retake
Jerusalem.
Christian Crusades: East and West
The 4th Crusade
Date
1199-1204
Leaders and Major Events
Participants
Pope Innocent
III called for
it!
Pope Innocent
III forced
people to be
Crusaders or
they would be
Excommunicated
The crusaders
conquered and
looted
Constantinople
for 3 days in
1204.
Results
Big failure!
Never made it
to the Holy
land.
The art and
history at
Constantinople
was looted and
destroyed.
The destruction of
Constantinople in 1204
The destruction of
Constantinople in 1204
The Children’s Crusade
Date
1212
Leaders and Major Events
Participants
Nicholas a
shepherd
Poor
children!
30,000 mostly
German
children
starve, died in
storms or were
tricked by
pirates and
merchants into
being sold as
slaves in
Tunisia.
Results
Big failure!
Never made it
to the Holy
land.
Children
everywhere
learned that
pirate strangers
are bad!
The Children’s Crusade
The Children’s Crusade
“So you guys are pirates?”
5th-8th Crusades
Date
1217-1270
Leaders and Major Events
Participants
Mostly French
and German
Kings.
Crusaders try
to invade
Egypt, other
parts of North
Africa, and
the Holy Land.
Results
All are failures
except the 6th
Crusade, in
which Christians
and Muslims sit
down and talk.
The Christian
leaders were
condemned by
the Pope and
excommunicated
for not fighting.
Turks recapture
Jerusalem in
1244.
French King Louis XI in captivity
in Egypt
The Crusade of the Shepherds
Date
1255
Leaders and Major Events
Participants
30,000
shepherds
and
peasants
Caused a riot
in Orleans,
France.
Never gets
organized to
leave France.
More riots,
maybe the
shepherds did
not trust the
boat captains!
Results
Big failure,
unless you
were a
shepherd who
likes to riot
with your
sheep!
The Crusade of the Shepherds
A Crusader returning home.