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The Crusades Causes of the Crusades • Alexis the leader of the Byzantine Empire asked for help because the Muslim Turks were threatening to invade. • In 1095 A.D. at a meeting with nobles outside of Clermont, France Pope Urban II called for a “Holy Crusade” to gain control of the Holy Land. • Pope Urban II Causes of the Crusades • Christian pilgrims were being refused free access to Jerusalem. • Crusaders would have their sins pardoned. • Many (especially second sons of nobles that were not going to inherit land) were greedy for new lands to rule and the rumored riches of the Holy Land. Causes of the Crusades • Knights were bored because of the stability of the period made them unnecessary. • It was thought that the division between eastern and western Christian Church could be healed. Pope Urban II: Calling for a Crusade The Crusade of the Poor Date 1096 Leaders and Major Participants Events Little Peter and common peasants Results The Crusaders were Massacre of Jews in Europe slaughtered by to get supplies the Ottoman Turks The Crusaders were shocked by the wealth and beauty of Constantinople and start stealing everything! The Slaughter of the Crusade of the Poor Early Christian Crusades: East and West The Christian siege of Jerusalem The massacre of Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem The Crusaders built European styles castles called “kraks” in the Holy Land to protect key land routes to Jerusalem. The Knight Templar was created to protect Christian Pilgrims in the Holy Land. The Knight Templar profited from the Crusades and became very wealthy. Hospitallers were another elite Christian fighting force. 2nd Crusade The Christian kings discuss plans to attack Damascus The 2nd Crusade Date 1147-1148 Leaders and Major Participants Events The French Declaring King Louis VII Jihad and a German Muslim king named armies Conrad III gained some land back, however Jerusalem was not taken. Results It was a draw! Nothing really won or lost! Godfrey of Bouillon Saladin became the new ruler of the Muslim armies in 1169.A.D. Battle of Hattin July 4, 1187 Battle of Hattin July 4, 1187 A.D. • Importance: A major turning point in the Crusades was when the Christian Crusaders were almost completely destroyed by a Muslim army led by Saladin on the July 4, 1187A.D. This battle led to the eventual recapture of Jerusalem by the Muslim armies and provoked the 3rd Crusade. The Battle of Hattin stopped major Christian expansion in the Middle East. Chaos in Jerusalem! Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin in October of 1187 The 3rd Crusade! Richard the Lionhearted The 3rd Crusade Date 1189-1192 Leaders and Major Participants Events SaladinMuslim leader and Richard the Lionhearted Results Saladin Richard and captures Saladin Jerusalem in create a 1187. truce for 3 years. Richard wins several battles but cannot retake Jerusalem. Christian Crusades: East and West The 4th Crusade Date 1199-1204 Leaders and Major Events Participants Pope Innocent III called for it! Pope Innocent III forced people to be Crusaders or they would be Excommunicated The crusaders conquered and looted Constantinople for 3 days in 1204. Results Big failure! Never made it to the Holy land. The art and history at Constantinople was looted and destroyed. The destruction of Constantinople in 1204 The destruction of Constantinople in 1204 The Children’s Crusade Date 1212 Leaders and Major Events Participants Nicholas a shepherd Poor children! 30,000 mostly German children starve, died in storms or were tricked by pirates and merchants into being sold as slaves in Tunisia. Results Big failure! Never made it to the Holy land. Children everywhere learned that pirate strangers are bad! The Children’s Crusade The Children’s Crusade “So you guys are pirates?” 5th-8th Crusades Date 1217-1270 Leaders and Major Events Participants Mostly French and German Kings. Crusaders try to invade Egypt, other parts of North Africa, and the Holy Land. Results All are failures except the 6th Crusade, in which Christians and Muslims sit down and talk. The Christian leaders were condemned by the Pope and excommunicated for not fighting. Turks recapture Jerusalem in 1244. French King Louis XI in captivity in Egypt The Crusade of the Shepherds Date 1255 Leaders and Major Events Participants 30,000 shepherds and peasants Caused a riot in Orleans, France. Never gets organized to leave France. More riots, maybe the shepherds did not trust the boat captains! Results Big failure, unless you were a shepherd who likes to riot with your sheep! The Crusade of the Shepherds A Crusader returning home.