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Transcript
APS Science 2011
APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner
Grade Level/Subject
Chemistry
Stage 1: Desired Results
Enduring Understanding
Topic 5: Chemical Reactions: Matter exists, interacts, and changes. These changes can be classified by type .
These changes can be affected by conditions in which they are performed..
Correlations
Unifying Understanding
The student will investigate and understand how conservation of matter and
energy is expressed in balanced equations.
VA SOL
CH. 3 The student will investigate and understand how conservation of
energy and matter is expressed in chemical formulas and balanced
equations.
Key concepts include
b) balancing chemical equations;
c) writing chemical formulas;
d) bonding types;
e) reaction types; and
f) reaction rates, kinetics, and equilibrium.
NSES (grade level)
AAAS Atlas
Essential Questions
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What causes a reaction?
How do we predict reactions before they happen?
Can change be predicted?
How do the properties of a substance affect change?
What factors affect the rate of a chemical reaction and why?
How entropy and enthalpy affect the spontaneity of a chemical reaction?
What is equilibrium?
What is Le Chatlier’s Principle?
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Knowledge and Skills
Students should know
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Conservation of matter is represented in balanced chemical equations. A coefficient is a quantity that
precedes a reactant or product formula in a chemical equation and indicates the relative number of
particles involved in the reaction.
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APS Science 2011
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o
Major types of chemical reactions are
 synthesis (A+B AB)
 decomposition (BC  B + C
 single replacement (A+BC B+AC)
 double replacement (AC+BD AD+BC)
 neutralization (HX+MOH H2O + MX)
 combustion (CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O).
Kinetics is the study of reaction rates. Several factors affect reaction rates, including temperature,
concentration, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst.
Reaction rates/kinetics are affected by activation energy, catalysis, and the degree of randomness
(entropy). Catalysts decrease the amount of activation energy needed.
Chemical reactions based on the net heat energy are exothermic reactions (heat producing) and
endothermic reactions (heat absorbing).
Reactions occurring in both forward and reverse directions are reversible. Reversible reactions can
reach a state of equilibrium, where reaction rates of the forward and reverse reactions are constant.
Le Chatelier’s Principle indicates the qualitative prediction of direction of change with
temperature, pressure, and concentration.
Students should be able to:
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Recognize the difference between physical and chemical changes.
Write a balanced chemical equation of a reaction from the word description of the reaction.
Classify types of chemical reactions as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double
replacement, neutralization, and/or combustion.
Balance chemical reactions
Predict the products of a reaction
Recognize that there is a natural tendency for systems to move in a direction of randomness
(entropy).
Recognize equations for redox reactions and neutralization reactions.
Write the half reactions for oxidation and reduction reactions
Distinguish between an endothermic and exothermic process.
Interpret reaction rate diagrams.
Identify and explain the effect of the following factors that affect the rate and time have on the rate
of a chemical reaction: (catalyst, temperature, concentration, size of particles).
Distinguish between irreversible reactions and those at equilibrium.
Predict the shift in equilibrium when a system is subjected to a stress (Le Chatelier’s Principle) and
identify the factors that can cause a shift in equilibrium (temperature, pressure, and concentration.)
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APS Science 2011
Stage 2: Assessment Evidence
Prior Knowledge and Skills
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Matter can be described using both chemical and physical properties.
Elements are the simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties.
A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed
proportion.
4. Chemical formulas are used to represent compounds. Subscripts represent the relative number of
each type of atom in a molecule or formula unit. The International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC) system is used for naming compounds.
Compounds have different properties than the elements from which they are composed.
Bonds form between atoms to achieve stability. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons
between atoms. Ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons between ions.
Formative Assessment
Summative Assessment
 Student participation
 Laboratory Reports
 Homework (readings, questions,
 Tests and Quizzes
and problems)
 Laboratory assessment
understanding models
Stage 3: Learning Plan
References to Adopted Materials
Prentice Hall Chemistry:
Text:
Chapter 11: Chemical Reactions
Chapter 17: Thermochemistry: Sections 17.1 and 17.2 pp.504-519
Chapter 18: Rates of Reaction and Equilibrium
Chapter 20: Section 20.1 pp. 630-638
Guided Reading and Study Workbook
Chapter 11 pp.113-126
Chapter 17 Sections 17.1 and 17.2 pp.183-186
Chapter 18 pp. 193-208
Chapter 20 Section 20.1 pp. 221-223
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Holt Chemistry:
Text:
Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions
Chapter 10 Causes of Change
Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium
Chapter 16: Reaction Rates
Chapter 17: Oxidation, Reduction and Electrochemistry Section1: Oxidation and Reduction
Reactions
Suggested Investigations
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Physical/Chemical Changes Lab - Students perform a series of reactions and determine if a
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physical or chemical change occurred.
Reactions to Equations Lab: In this experiment you will use common laboratory techniques to
prepare three gases – hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide – and you will verify the identities of the
gases using splint tests. Then you will write and balance the chemical equations for the reactions
observed.
Activity Series Lab: The purpose of this lab is to perform a series of single replacement reactions,
write the equations for the reactions that take place, and empirically determine the activity series for
the metals tested.
Reaction Kinetics: The Iodine Clock Reaction: One version is Flinn Scientific Catalog No AP4861
Balancing Reaction Cards - Students use cards to help learn balancing reactions.
Teacher Demo: Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium
Prentice Hall Activities
 p. 320 Inquiry Activity: Modeling Chemical Reactions
 p.345: Precipitation Reactions: Formation of Solids
 LM p.91 Laboratory 14: Types of Chemical Reactions
 LM p.97 Laboratory 15: Reactivity of Metals
 Teacher Demo p.325 TE: An Example of a Chemical Change (Sulfuric Acid and Sugar)
 Teacher Demo p.327 TE: Balance a Chemical Equation (Reaction of CuCl2 with Aluminum
 Teacher Demo p.335 TE: Law of Conservation of Mass (Potassium Dichromate with Silver Nitrate.)
 Teacher Demo p..337 TE: Combustion of Iron
 Teacher Demo p.506 TE An Endothermic Reaction
 Teacher Demo p.515 TE: An Exothermic Reaction
 p. 540 Inquiry Activity: Temperature and Reaction Rates
 p.544 Quick Lab: Does Steel Burn?
 P. 550 Interpreting Graphics: Change in Concentration of Reactants and Products
 LM p Laboratory 36 : Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
Holt Activities
 p.259 Start Up Activity: Observing a Chemical Reaction
 Teacher Demo p.268 TE Electrolysis of Water
 p.282 Quick Lab: Balancing Equations by Using Models
Outdoor Education Applications
 None currently noted
Resources
Web Sites
 http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp02/02020.html (use for chemical bonding
animations and polarity)
 http://phet.colora.edu/en/simulation/balancing-chemical-equations: Fun, interactive,
research--based simulations of physical phenomena from the PhET project at the University
of Colora.
Explorelearning.com
 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Collision Theory
 Chemical Equations
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APS Science 2011
Videos
Prentice Hall “Chemistry Alive! Labs”
 Burning Magnesium
 Methane Bubbles
 Grain Elevator Explosion
 Making Sodium Chloride
 Milk of Mangesia
 Thermite Reaction
 Grain Elevator Explosion
Discovery Education (www.discoveryeducation.com)
 Elements of Chemistry: Compounds and Reactions Clips- Chemical Reactions (3:29) and
Ionic Bonding (3:21)
 Simple Science: Reaction Equations Clip- Naming Compounds and Balancing Equations
(5:33)
 An Introduction to Le Chatelier’s Principle – Eight Segments (Total 29:05)
 Chemical Reactions – 7 segments (Total 18:09)
 Dynamic Equilbrium – Nine Segments (Total 295)
Field Trips
 None currently noted
Other
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 37- 39 Concept Review: Ionic Bonding and Salts
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 40- 42 Concept Review: Names and Formulas of
Ionic Compounds
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 43- 46 Concept Review: Covalent Bonds
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 47- 49 Concept Review: Drawing and Naming
Molecules
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 50- 51 Concept Review: Molecular Shapes
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 60- 62 Concept Review: Describing Chemical
Reactions
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 63- 64 Concept Review: Balancing Chemical
Equations
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 65- 66 Concept Review: Classifying Chemical
Reactions
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 67-68 Concept Review : Writing Net Ionic
Equations
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 87- 88 Concept Review: States and State Changes
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 89- 90 Concept Review: Intermolecular Forces
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 91- 92 Concept Review: Energy of State Changes
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 93- 94 Concept Review: Phase Equilibrium
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 106- 107 Concept Review: Solutions
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 110- 112 Concept Review: Solubility and the
Dissolving Process
 Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 113- 115 Concept Review: Physical Properties of
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Solutions
Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 142- 143 Concept Review: Oxidation- Reduction
Reaction
Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 144- 145 Concept Review: Introduction to
Electrochemistry
Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 149- 150 Concept Review: Electrolytic Cells
Holt Chapter Resources on CD- ROM pg 167 Concept Review: Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
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APS Science 2011
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