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Transcript
EVOLUTION AND CHANGE NOTES
Evidence for Evolution
•
An ____________________ is an inherited trait that helps an organism survive.
•
Adaptations include body structures that help an organism feed, move around, and
protect itself.
•
__________________ is the process of how organisms acquire adaptations over time.
Evolution is a branching process
•
Diversity means ________________.
•
Scientists hypothesize that all life forms evolved from a _____________ _________
and new species branch off from earlier species.
•
Similarities among all _____________ support the hypothesis that all life evolved from
a common ancestor.
– All cells have a similar ____________ _________________
– Many cells have the same type of cellular respiration.
– All cells have ___________ as their hereditary material.
•
An ________________ is an organism from which others have descended.
•
A ________________ displays evolutionary relationships among living species and their
ancestors.
Lines of Evidence
•
_______________ _______________ is the study of anatomical similarities and
differences among species.
•
What does your arm have in common with the wing of a bird, the flipper of a porpoise,
and the forelimb of an elephant?
•
______________ ________________ serve the same function but come from
different origins.
•
_______________ ________________ have a common origin, but do not necessarily
perform the same function.
•
_________________ are animals with a backbone.
•
Comparative anatomists have discovered similarities in ____________ of vertebrates.
•
Adult vertebrates also share many similarities in their __________________ and
______________. Species that share more similarities in their DNA base sequences
are more closely related than those that share fewer similarities.
•
A ___________ is a remnant or trace of an organism from the past, such as a skeleton
or leaf imprint, embedded and preserved in Earth’s crust.
•
Fossils found in the upper (newer) sedimentary layers more closely resemble present-day
organisms than fossils found in deeper (older) layers.
Voyage of the Beagle
•
In 1831, the research ship ___________________ left England for a five-year cruise
around the world.
•
A young man named _______________ _______________ (1809–1882) collected
thousands of plant and animal species.
•
Darwin wrote down his _____________ and collected __________ about evolution.
•
One of the places where the Beagle stopped was the _______________ __________,
west of South America.
•
Darwin noted differences in ________________ from island to island.
•
One difference he found was in the ______________ of their beaks.
•
The shape of finch beaks appeared to differ with the _____________________ eaten.
How Evolution Works
•
Darwin concluded that finch beaks were _____________ for the type of food they ate.
•
He began to think about ___________ and _____________ the finches became
different from each other.
Darwin’s hypothesis
•
Darwin hypothesized that an _________________ species of finch from the mainland
somehow ended up on the Galapagos Islands.
•
Each group of finches became ________________ from the other groups.
•
Eventually, each group became a _______________ species.
Darwin’s Theory
•
In 1859, Darwin published the results of his study in a book called On the Origin of
Species by Means of Natural Selection.
•
Based on his research and evidence, Darwin concluded that:
1. Organisms ____________ __________ ______________.
2. All organisms are __________ from common ancestors by a process of branching.
3. Evolution is _______________, taking place over a long time.
4. The mechanism of evolution is ______________ _________________.
Natural Selection
•
Natural selection is the process by which organisms with favorable adaptations
_______________ and ________________ at a higher rate than organisms with lessfavorable adaptations.
Mutations
•
Since Darwin’s time, there has been a growing body of knowledge about ___________.
•
Today, scientists know that variations in the population of a species are caused by
______________ _______________ in genes.
•
Random mutations in genes produce ___________________ of traits in a population.
The importance of genetic variation
•
Some mutations are ________________ because they cause genetic disorders.
•
Mutations may also be ________________ because they contribute to genetic variation.
•
Genetic variation refers to the variety of alleles (genes) in a population.
Extinction
•
Extinction occurs when the environment _______________ and the adaptations of a
species are no longer sufficient for its survival.