Download evolution and change notes

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Natural selection wikipedia, lookup

Evolving digital ecological networks wikipedia, lookup

State switching wikipedia, lookup

Population genetics wikipedia, lookup

Hologenome theory of evolution wikipedia, lookup

Transitional fossil wikipedia, lookup

Evidence of common descent wikipedia, lookup

Paleontology wikipedia, lookup

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex wikipedia, lookup

Theistic evolution wikipedia, lookup

Saltation (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Evolutionary history of life wikipedia, lookup

The eclipse of Darwinism wikipedia, lookup

Introduction to evolution wikipedia, lookup

Evidence for Evolution
An ____________________ is an inherited trait that helps an organism survive.
Adaptations include body structures that help an organism feed, move around, and
protect itself.
__________________ is the process of how organisms acquire adaptations over time.
Evolution is a branching process
Diversity means ________________.
Scientists hypothesize that all life forms evolved from a _____________ _________
and new species branch off from earlier species.
Similarities among all _____________ support the hypothesis that all life evolved from
a common ancestor.
– All cells have a similar ____________ _________________
– Many cells have the same type of cellular respiration.
– All cells have ___________ as their hereditary material.
An ________________ is an organism from which others have descended.
A ________________ displays evolutionary relationships among living species and their
Lines of Evidence
_______________ _______________ is the study of anatomical similarities and
differences among species.
What does your arm have in common with the wing of a bird, the flipper of a porpoise,
and the forelimb of an elephant?
______________ ________________ serve the same function but come from
different origins.
_______________ ________________ have a common origin, but do not necessarily
perform the same function.
_________________ are animals with a backbone.
Comparative anatomists have discovered similarities in ____________ of vertebrates.
Adult vertebrates also share many similarities in their __________________ and
______________. Species that share more similarities in their DNA base sequences
are more closely related than those that share fewer similarities.
A ___________ is a remnant or trace of an organism from the past, such as a skeleton
or leaf imprint, embedded and preserved in Earth’s crust.
Fossils found in the upper (newer) sedimentary layers more closely resemble present-day
organisms than fossils found in deeper (older) layers.
Voyage of the Beagle
In 1831, the research ship ___________________ left England for a five-year cruise
around the world.
A young man named _______________ _______________ (1809–1882) collected
thousands of plant and animal species.
Darwin wrote down his _____________ and collected __________ about evolution.
One of the places where the Beagle stopped was the _______________ __________,
west of South America.
Darwin noted differences in ________________ from island to island.
One difference he found was in the ______________ of their beaks.
The shape of finch beaks appeared to differ with the _____________________ eaten.
How Evolution Works
Darwin concluded that finch beaks were _____________ for the type of food they ate.
He began to think about ___________ and _____________ the finches became
different from each other.
Darwin’s hypothesis
Darwin hypothesized that an _________________ species of finch from the mainland
somehow ended up on the Galapagos Islands.
Each group of finches became ________________ from the other groups.
Eventually, each group became a _______________ species.
Darwin’s Theory
In 1859, Darwin published the results of his study in a book called On the Origin of
Species by Means of Natural Selection.
Based on his research and evidence, Darwin concluded that:
1. Organisms ____________ __________ ______________.
2. All organisms are __________ from common ancestors by a process of branching.
3. Evolution is _______________, taking place over a long time.
4. The mechanism of evolution is ______________ _________________.
Natural Selection
Natural selection is the process by which organisms with favorable adaptations
_______________ and ________________ at a higher rate than organisms with lessfavorable adaptations.
Since Darwin’s time, there has been a growing body of knowledge about ___________.
Today, scientists know that variations in the population of a species are caused by
______________ _______________ in genes.
Random mutations in genes produce ___________________ of traits in a population.
The importance of genetic variation
Some mutations are ________________ because they cause genetic disorders.
Mutations may also be ________________ because they contribute to genetic variation.
Genetic variation refers to the variety of alleles (genes) in a population.
Extinction occurs when the environment _______________ and the adaptations of a
species are no longer sufficient for its survival.