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Transcript
ANCIENT ROME STUDY GUIDE
1. Rome is a city located on the __Italian_____ peninsula.
Map:
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Britannia
Hispania
Gaul
Carthage
Rome
Alexandria
Black Sea
Aegean Sean
Adriatic Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Alps
Tyrhennian Sea
Sicily
***Be familiar with the each stage of expansion***
Early Rome, Rome Before Punic War, Rome After
Punic War, Rome at Death of Ceasar, Pax Romana
2. Who were the legendary founders of Rome? (three people)
Aeneas and Romulus/Remus
3. Where did the Roman senate meet? (Hint: …it was a marketplace)
Forum
4. Match the god/goddess:
___6__ Ceres
1) God of war
___3__ Jupiter
2) god of the underworld
__7___ Venus
3) king of the gods
__8___ Poseidon (Neptune)
4) god of wine
__2___ Pluto
5) Roman name for Athena
__5___ Minerva
6) Roman grain goddess
__1___ Mars
7) Roman goddess of love
__4___ Bacchus
8) god of the ocean
5. Identify the following terms/people:
a. Dictator- a temporary position appointed by the Senate during times of emergency for 6mo.
b. Etruscans- early Roman neighbors, Romans adapted their arch
c. Patricians- noblemen
d. Plebians- regular citizens
e. Pax Romana- Roman Peace, 200 year period of relative peace and prosperity starting w/
Augustus
f. Aqueduct- Roman engineering innovation that carried water to the cities of Rome
g. Republic- form of government in which citizens elect representatives to govern
h. 12 Tables- Roman law code during the Republic
i. Consul- one of two executives in the Republic who carried out laws and commanded the army
6. Rome fought three Punic Wars against which Northern African city?
Carthage
7. How did they treat the people of this city after the final war?
They burned Carthage and sowed the soil with salt
8. Name 3 results of the Punic Wars?
a. Romans gained land in Spain, North Africa, and islands in Mediterranean
b. Rome was the superpower in the Mediterranean region
c.
9. Name 4 areas which became part of the Roman Empire.
a. Spain
b. North Africa
c. Sicily
d. Corsica/Sardinia
10. What was the name of the Carthaginian general during the 2nd Punic War? The Roman general who
defeated him?
Hannibal (Carthage), Scipio Africanis (Rome)
11. Who were the Gracchi brothers and what was their significance?
Reformers who wanted to use the office of tribune to push land reform, giving land to plebeians. They were
murdered by the Senate. This started a trend of the Senate using violence to get rid of people who threatened
their agenda.
12. Who was Marius and what was his significance?
Roman general who reformed the army so that men could join even if they could not afford armor. He also
promised land to veterans. He created the pattern of Roman soldiers being more loyal to their generals than
to the state.
13. Who was Sulla and what was his significance?
Roman general who fought and defeated Marius in a civil war. He claimed the title of dictator for more than
6mo. He was the first to be a dictator for more than 6mo and created that precedent.
14. What were 4 reasons for the decline of the REPUBLIC in the 1st century BCE?
a. Too many slaves
b. Unemployment
c. Soldiers loyal to their generals
d. Devaluation of the currency due to inflation
15. Who was in the First Triumvirate?
Pompey, Julius Caesar, Crassus
16. Write at least four key achievements of Julius Caesar:
a. Reformed the calendar
b. Land reform for plebeians
c. Conquered Gaul
d. Cancelled debts of many plebeians
17. Who was in the 2nd Triumvirate?
Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus
18. Who won at the Battle of Actium?
Octavian
19. What does the title Augustus mean? Upon whom did the Senate bestow this title?
Revered One. Octavian
20. Write at least three key achievements of Augustus:
 Rebuilt city of Rome
 Julian Marriage Laws
 Added more land to the Empire
21. Name 3 effects of the Pax Romana on the economy.
More trade, more roads, common currency across Empire
22. What effect did a uniform system of money have on the Pax Romana?
More trade!
23. Name 2 social impacts of the Pax Romana.
More emphasis on marriage and family, less strife between patricians and plebeians
•
24. List four examples of Roman technology or architecture.
 Aqueducts
 Arches
 Domes
 Highways
25. Explain how these technologies affected the civilians of Rome.
Aqueducts: bring clean water to the cities
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Arches: add strength to a building while using less building materials
Domes: add height to a building
Highways: connect the empire and allow the military to march quickly
26. What medical and scientific advances did the Romans make?
Medical schools, precursor to the ideas of bacteria and germs, orbits.
27. Who wrote the Aeneid?
Virgil
28. Why are the languages of Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Romanian called “Romance
languages?”
They are derived from the Roman language, Latin.
29. Christianity was grew out of what religion? _____Judaism________________________
30. What kind of religion was Christianity? _____monoTHEISM
31. Who was proclaimed the Messiah? _______ Jesus Christ ____________________________
32. Who started Christianity? _________Jesus Christ________________________________
33. Why did the Romans persecute Christians? Christians did not accept the Roman gods or that the
Roman emperor was considered a god.
34. Name 3 basic beliefs of Christianity. ___life after death, Jesus as messiah, monotheism, tripartite god
(father, son, holy spirit)
35. What was the holy book for Christians? ___Bible_____________________________
36. What was the goal of the Apostles? ____to spread the word of Christ____
37. What does the New Testament contain? ____accounts of Jesus’ life (Gospels)
38. Who helped to spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire? ______Paul___________
39. Who was the first Christian emperor? ___Constantine____________________
40. What emperor legalized Christianity? ______Theodosius____________________
41. Explain how Christianity gained followers in Rome.
Followers of Jesus spread his message of love and peace to the slaves and poor of the Roman Empire. Many
Christians died in gladiator games as martyrs, making some Romans curious about the religion. Constantine,
the Roman Emperor, finally adopted it and made it legal and it spread quickly.
42. During the AD 200s, Rome’s power weakened, what happened to the empire in 395 AD?
It was split into two halves, Eastern and Western.
43. Explain 4 contributions the Romans have given the world that we use today.
 Names of the planets
 Names of the months
 Idea of bacteria and germs
 Idea of orbits
 Latin-based languages
 Arches and domes
 Stadiums/arenas
 Concrete
 Highway system
 Republican form of government
 And so much more!