ANCIENT ROME STUDY GUIDE 1. Rome is a city located on the __Italian_____ peninsula. Map: Britannia Hispania Gaul Carthage Rome Alexandria Black Sea Aegean Sean Adriatic Sea Mediterranean Sea Alps Tyrhennian Sea Sicily ***Be familiar with the each stage of expansion*** Early Rome, Rome Before Punic War, Rome After Punic War, Rome at Death of Ceasar, Pax Romana 2. Who were the legendary founders of Rome? (three people) Aeneas and Romulus/Remus 3. Where did the Roman senate meet? (Hint: …it was a marketplace) Forum 4. Match the god/goddess: ___6__ Ceres 1) God of war ___3__ Jupiter 2) god of the underworld __7___ Venus 3) king of the gods __8___ Poseidon (Neptune) 4) god of wine __2___ Pluto 5) Roman name for Athena __5___ Minerva 6) Roman grain goddess __1___ Mars 7) Roman goddess of love __4___ Bacchus 8) god of the ocean 5. Identify the following terms/people: a. Dictator- a temporary position appointed by the Senate during times of emergency for 6mo. b. Etruscans- early Roman neighbors, Romans adapted their arch c. Patricians- noblemen d. Plebians- regular citizens e. Pax Romana- Roman Peace, 200 year period of relative peace and prosperity starting w/ Augustus f. Aqueduct- Roman engineering innovation that carried water to the cities of Rome g. Republic- form of government in which citizens elect representatives to govern h. 12 Tables- Roman law code during the Republic i. Consul- one of two executives in the Republic who carried out laws and commanded the army 6. Rome fought three Punic Wars against which Northern African city? Carthage 7. How did they treat the people of this city after the final war? They burned Carthage and sowed the soil with salt 8. Name 3 results of the Punic Wars? a. Romans gained land in Spain, North Africa, and islands in Mediterranean b. Rome was the superpower in the Mediterranean region c. 9. Name 4 areas which became part of the Roman Empire. a. Spain b. North Africa c. Sicily d. Corsica/Sardinia 10. What was the name of the Carthaginian general during the 2nd Punic War? The Roman general who defeated him? Hannibal (Carthage), Scipio Africanis (Rome) 11. Who were the Gracchi brothers and what was their significance? Reformers who wanted to use the office of tribune to push land reform, giving land to plebeians. They were murdered by the Senate. This started a trend of the Senate using violence to get rid of people who threatened their agenda. 12. Who was Marius and what was his significance? Roman general who reformed the army so that men could join even if they could not afford armor. He also promised land to veterans. He created the pattern of Roman soldiers being more loyal to their generals than to the state. 13. Who was Sulla and what was his significance? Roman general who fought and defeated Marius in a civil war. He claimed the title of dictator for more than 6mo. He was the first to be a dictator for more than 6mo and created that precedent. 14. What were 4 reasons for the decline of the REPUBLIC in the 1st century BCE? a. Too many slaves b. Unemployment c. Soldiers loyal to their generals d. Devaluation of the currency due to inflation 15. Who was in the First Triumvirate? Pompey, Julius Caesar, Crassus 16. Write at least four key achievements of Julius Caesar: a. Reformed the calendar b. Land reform for plebeians c. Conquered Gaul d. Cancelled debts of many plebeians 17. Who was in the 2nd Triumvirate? Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus 18. Who won at the Battle of Actium? Octavian 19. What does the title Augustus mean? Upon whom did the Senate bestow this title? Revered One. Octavian 20. Write at least three key achievements of Augustus: Rebuilt city of Rome Julian Marriage Laws Added more land to the Empire 21. Name 3 effects of the Pax Romana on the economy. More trade, more roads, common currency across Empire 22. What effect did a uniform system of money have on the Pax Romana? More trade! 23. Name 2 social impacts of the Pax Romana. More emphasis on marriage and family, less strife between patricians and plebeians • 24. List four examples of Roman technology or architecture. Aqueducts Arches Domes Highways 25. Explain how these technologies affected the civilians of Rome. Aqueducts: bring clean water to the cities • • • Arches: add strength to a building while using less building materials Domes: add height to a building Highways: connect the empire and allow the military to march quickly 26. What medical and scientific advances did the Romans make? Medical schools, precursor to the ideas of bacteria and germs, orbits. 27. Who wrote the Aeneid? Virgil 28. Why are the languages of Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Romanian called “Romance languages?” They are derived from the Roman language, Latin. 29. Christianity was grew out of what religion? _____Judaism________________________ 30. What kind of religion was Christianity? _____monoTHEISM 31. Who was proclaimed the Messiah? _______ Jesus Christ ____________________________ 32. Who started Christianity? _________Jesus Christ________________________________ 33. Why did the Romans persecute Christians? Christians did not accept the Roman gods or that the Roman emperor was considered a god. 34. Name 3 basic beliefs of Christianity. ___life after death, Jesus as messiah, monotheism, tripartite god (father, son, holy spirit) 35. What was the holy book for Christians? ___Bible_____________________________ 36. What was the goal of the Apostles? ____to spread the word of Christ____ 37. What does the New Testament contain? ____accounts of Jesus’ life (Gospels) 38. Who helped to spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire? ______Paul___________ 39. Who was the first Christian emperor? ___Constantine____________________ 40. What emperor legalized Christianity? ______Theodosius____________________ 41. Explain how Christianity gained followers in Rome. Followers of Jesus spread his message of love and peace to the slaves and poor of the Roman Empire. Many Christians died in gladiator games as martyrs, making some Romans curious about the religion. Constantine, the Roman Emperor, finally adopted it and made it legal and it spread quickly. 42. During the AD 200s, Rome’s power weakened, what happened to the empire in 395 AD? It was split into two halves, Eastern and Western. 43. Explain 4 contributions the Romans have given the world that we use today. Names of the planets Names of the months Idea of bacteria and germs Idea of orbits Latin-based languages Arches and domes Stadiums/arenas Concrete Highway system Republican form of government And so much more!