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Transcript
SOL BIOLOGY REVIEW
Everything you wanted to know and
then some…..
GENERAL INFORMATION
• 60 Questions
• 10 are research
questions.
• You must answer 34
correctly to pass.
• You must answer 45
correctly to achieve an
advance pass
THE BREAKDOWN
• Scientific
Investigation- 11
• Life at Molecular and
Cellular Level- 14
• Life at Systems and
Organism Level- 14
• Research questions-10
SOME STRATEGIES
• Four responses: The
right one, the two
really wrong ones and
the distractor.
• The distractor is
almost right. It is
basically a trick.
More Strategies
• The incredible POE :
PROCESS OF
ELIMINATION
BOTTOM LINE
• ANSWER ALL THE
QUESTIONS
• GO AHEAD AND
GUESS!
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
UNIT ONE
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
• Observationsgathering data using
your senses.
• Quantitative
observations: Use
numbers
• Qualitative
Observations:
Describe things
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
• INFERENCES:
gathering data based
on previous
knowledge
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
• USING
APPROPRIATE
SOURCES
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
• HYPOTHESIS – an
educated guess Must
be in IF,Then format
• INDEPENDENT
VARIABLE- the
thing that changes in
an experiment
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
• DEPENDENT
VARIABLE- The
thing that is changed
by the experimentwhat will you
measure?
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
• CONTROL- The
variables are
compared to the
control. For
example, the sugar
pill given to a group
of people
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATIONS
• SCIENTIFIC
•
•
•
•
•
METHOD- a way to
standardize the science5 steps
1. Ask a question
2. Develop a hypothesis
3. Do the experiment
4. Gather data
5. Draw Conclusions
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
• GRAPHING- the
independent variable
goes on the X axis
• The dependent
variable goes on the Y
axis
UNIT TWO: BIOCHEMISTRY
“I thought this was Biology?”
MOLECULES OF LIFE
• ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS:
• MUST HAVE
CARBON IN THEM
• Exception is CO
(carbon monoxide)
MOLECULES OF LIFE
•
•
•
•
Four Types:
PROTEINSMade from amino acids
Used for repair, building
and structure
• Test: Biuret’s Solution
• Made by the Ribosome
• Examples: any meat,
hair nails
MOLECULES OF LIFE
• PROTEINS• ENZYMES- special
•
•
•
•
type of protein
Speed up reactions
Affected by temp.
and pH
Have an active site.
Lock and Key theory
MOLECULES OF LIFE
• Carbohydrates:
• Two types:
• Simple- sugars like those
•
•
•
•
in juice or candy
Complex: like pasta or
bagels
2:1 ratio of C to H
Test with Benedicts
Used for energy
MOLECULES OF LIFE
• LIPIDS:
• Fats, Waxes and Oils
• Saturated- are solid at
room temp. Like butter
• Unsaturated- liquid at
room temp.- olive oil
• Test: brown paper
• Used for long term
storage of energy
MOLECULES OF LIFE
• NUCLEIC ACIDS• Hereditary material
• Examples: DNA,
RNA
• Made up of
nucleotides
THE CELL!!!
Unit 3
CELLS
• HISTORY:
• Hooke- named Cells,
Cells. Observed cork.
• Leewenhookdeveloped the
microscope
CELLS
• SCHLEIDEN- says
all plants are made of
cells
• SCHWANN-all
animals are made of
cells.
• VIRCHOW-Cells
come from other
cells.
CELLS
• CELL THEORY• 1. Cells are the basic
unit of life.
• 2. Cells come from
pre-existing cells
• 3.All organisms are
made from one or
more cells
CELLS
•
•
•
•
TWO BASIC TYPES
1. Prokaryotes
Simple
No nucleus or
organelles
• Example Bacteria
:Kingdom Monera
• PRO THINK NO!!
Cells
•
•
•
•
•
2. Eukaryotes:
Has a nucleus
Has organelles
More complex
Came from
prokaryotes
• Examples: Humans,
protists
PLANT CELLS
• Have a cell Wall
• Have a HUGE
vacuole- store water
• Have a Cell Plate in
cell division
• Are usually
rectangular
• Chloroplasts
Animal Cells
• Have Centrioles
• Cell Membranes
• May have Cilia,
flagella or
pseudopodia
ORGANELLES
• Small specialized
structures that have
special functions
within cells.
ORGANELLES
• Nucleus- brain of cell
• Nucleolous- inside
nucleus- makes
ribosomes
• Chromosomes- inside
nucleus- made of
DNA- heredity
• Mitochondriapowerhouse of the cell
ORGANELLES
• Lysosome- cleans up
the cell
• Ribosome- makes
protein
• Cytoplasm- jelly like
stuff inside the cell
• E.R.- smooth or
rough-with ribosomestransport
ORGANELLES
• Golgi body or
apparatus- packages
things
• Vacuole- storage
CELL MEMBRANE
• Fluid Mosaic Model• Bilayer
• Made of Phospholipids
• Lipids on the insidehydrophobic
• Phosphates on the
outside- hydrophillic
CELL MEMBRANE
• Purpose: Gate
keeper
• Semi-Permeablelet’s some things in
keeps others out
GETTING THINGS INTO AND OUT
OF THE CELL MEMBRANE
• Holes in the
membrane let some
things in and out
with no problem- like
O2 and water
• The Proteins help get
bigger things across
the membrane.
Cell Transport
• TWO TYPES
• PASSIVE- no energy
required.
• Examples include
Diffusion
CELL TRANSPORT
• OSMOSIS-diffusion
with water- passive
transport
CELL TRANSPORT
• ACTIVE
TRANSPORTrequires energy
• Used to get large
molecules into and
out of the cell.
• Proteins act as
channels/tunnels
Cell Transport
• EXOCYTOSISgetting things OUT
of the cell
CELL TRANSPORT
• ENDOCYTOSISgetting things INTO
the cell
CELL ENERGY
Photosynthesis and
Respiratioin
Unit FOUR
CELL ENERGY
• CELL RESPIRATION:
• Done by all cells
• Done in the
mitochondriapowerhouse of the cell.
• Method by which the cell
gets energy.
• ATP- Unit of Energy
• C6H12O6 + O2-> ATP
CELL ENERGY
• Two types of Cell
•
•
•
•
•
Respiration:
AEROBICUses oxygen
Is more efficient-> 32
ATPS
ANAEROBIC- No
oxygen
Less efficient-> 8 ATPS
ANAEROBIC vs. AEROBIC
•
•
•
•
•
ANAEROBIC:
No oxygen
Done by yeast
Inefficient
Produces Alcohol or
CO2
•
•
•
•
AEROBIC:
Oxygen
Efficient
Produces ATPs
Cell Respiration Steps
• Glycolysis: break
sugar down into
pyruvic acid.
• This happens in
BOTH anaerobic and
aerobic respiration.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• Done by plants.
• Done in the
chloroplast.
• CO2 + H2O with
sunlight ----
C6H12O6 + O2
RESPIRATION &
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• Take home Message
• They are called
complementary or
opposite reactions to
each other. WHY?
Because the reactants
of one are the
products of the other.
CELL REPRODUCTION
UNIT 5
CELL CYCLE
• INTERPHASE:
longest part of cell
cycle. Includes:
• G1- growth phase
• S- synthesis phasesDNA is replicated
here
• G2- second growth
phase
CELL CYCLE
• After interphase
there is the M phase.
• M=Mitosis/ Meiosis
This is when the cell
actually divides.
CELL CYCLE
• MITOSIS:
• Occurs in body
(somatic) cells, in
bacteria or some
protists
• Only one parent cell
• End up with two
identical daughter
cells.
CELL CYCLE
• Mitosis:
• Different Phases- these
just tell you what the
chromosomes are doing.
• Prophase- chromosomes
thicken, nuclear
membrane disappears
• Metaphasechromosomes line up in
middle
CELL CYCLE
• MITOSIS:
• Anaphase:
chromosomes are
pulled to opposite
sides of cell
• Telophase: the cell
forms a cleavage
furrow and begins to
split.
CELL CYCLE
• MEIOSIS: Occurs in
gametes- sex cellseggs and sperm
ONLY!!!
• End up 4 Haploid (
only half the number
of chromosomes)
cells.
• Two Divisions
CELL DIVISON
• MITOSIS
• In body cells
• End up with 2
• MEIOSIS
• In sex cells
• End up with 4
identical diploid cells
• Prophase,
Metaphase,
Anaphase, Telophase
• Cytokinesis
haploid cells
• Goes through 2
divisions
GENETICS!!
Unit 6
DNA
• The take home message!
• DNA contains all the
•
•
•
•
information to create
proteins.
DNA is found in every
living cell.
DNA is in the nucleus
DNA can be used to
identify any organism
It is amazing!!
NUCLEIC ACIDS
• DNA- Deoxyribonucleic
•
•
•
•
Acid.
Made up of nucleotidesconsist of nitrogen base
and sugar and phosphate
Double stranded- double
helix- twisted ladder
Rungs are nitrogen bases
(ATCG)
Sides are sugars and
phosphates
• RNA- Ribonucleic
acid:
• Single stranded
• Made from
nucleotides
• Bases are: AUGC
HISTORY
• Rosalind Franklin
used X- Rays to held
determine DNA shape
• Watson and Crick
Discovered DNA
• Chargaff’s rulesA&T, C&G
DNA REPLICATION
• Only molecule in the
•
•
•
•
universe to do this
1. The Hydrogen bonds
break and the DNA
unzips.
2. Free floating
nucleotides fill in
3. The sides re-form
Replication happens
during the S phase of
Interphase in the cell
cycle.
Protein Synthesis
• DNA directs protein
synthesis.
• Two parts:
• Transcription: mRNA is
formed from
information from DNA.
mRNA leaves the
nucleus.
• Codons- three bases= an
amino acid
Protein Synthesis
• 2. Translation: The
mRNA attaches to a
ribosome. Then
tRNA brings
matching anti-codons
to the mRNA.
• This forms amino
acids
• Groups of amino
acids = protein
DNA TECHNOLOGY
• We Can’t clone
Humans
• We can clone some
animals
• Human Genome
Project- effort to
sequence human
DNA
Genetics
• Mutations: errors in
the DNA that can
result in disease.
• Examples: PKUcan’t metabolize an
amino acid
• Sickle-Cell Anemia
• Tay Sachs
Chromosome Structure
• DNA is tightly coiled
to form a
Chromosome
• Humans have 46
chromosomes.
• The chromosome has
genes on it.
• Genes are packets of
information.
Chromosomes
• Karyotype- the way
chromosomes are
organized on paper.
Done by size- biggest
to smallest.
• Used to determine if
too many or few, and
any problems
Genetics
• Traitscharacteristics that
are inherited
• Half of DNA comes
from mom, half from
dad.
• This is why you can
have your moms
smile and dad’s eyes.
Genetics History
• Mendel- Father of
•
•
•
•
•
genetics
A monk who worked with
pea plants
Came up with three laws
1. Law of Dominanceone “gene” is dominant
over another
2. Law of Segregationgenes separate
3.Law of Independent
Assortment- genes are
shuffled
Genetics Vocabulary
• Alleles- different
forms of the same
gene
• Phenotype- the
physical appearance
of a trait
• Genotype- the
genetic makeup of a
trait
Genetic Vocabulary
• Homozygous- same genes
for a trait. Ex. TT or tt
• Heterozygous- different
genes for a trait. Ex. Tt
• P1- first generation or
parent
• F1- second or filial
generation - offspring
Genetics
• Punnet Square- a
table used to show all
possible outcomes
from a mating
Genetics
• PEDIGREE-a chart
used to track a trait
through generations.
Genetics
• Incomplete
DominanceBlending of traits ex.
Pink flowers blend
with red flowers to
form pink
• Co Dominance :
Equal expression of
two alleles ex. Blood
type
Taxonomy
Unit 7
TAXONOMY
• Science of naming
and classifying
organisms.
• Each level of
organization is called
a taxon
• Linneaus- father of
taxonomy
Taxonomy
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The taxa:
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Goes from broadest to
most specific
Taxonomy
• Binomial
nomenclature: fancy
way of saying two
name naming system.
• We use genus species
• Homo Sapien
Taxonomy
•
•
•
•
•
KINGDOMS:
Animalia
Plantae
Monera- bacteria
Protist- paramecium,
amoeba
• Fungi- mushrooms
Taxonomy
• Organisms grouped by
structural,
biochemical,
locomotive behavioral
and genetic
similarities.
• As you go from
kingdom to species,
the creatures are more
similar.
Taxonomy
• Homologous
structures- similar
and have a common
ancestor. EX. The
wings of birds and
bats. The actual
physical structure is
similar.
Taxonomy
• Analogous Structures
• Strucures that provide
the same function- but
DO NOT have a
common ancestor.
• EX. Bird and winset
wings
EVOLUTION
Unit 8
EVOLUTION
• Change over time
• Gradualism- change
takes place over
millions of years
• Punctuated
EquilibriumEverything stable for
a long while then a
sudden change then
stable again
EVOLUTION
• Darwin- came up with
Natural Selection- the
idea that organisms
gradually change by
adapting to their
environment so they
have a better chance
for survival.
• Survival of the
Fittest
EVOLUTION
• Geographic
Isolation- New
species develops
because part of the
population becomes
isolated and develops
different features.
• Ex. Darwin’s finches
ECOLOGY
Unit 9
ECOLOGY
• Biosphere 8km above
and 8km below the
surface of Earh
• Ecosystem- all living
and non-living parts
of an area
• Community: All
living parts of an
area
ECOLOGY
• Population: one
particular group of
organisms within an
area.
• Biotic: any living thing
• Abiotic: any non-living
thing
• Biome: an area
determined by climate
ex. Desert, ocean
ECOLOGY
• Succession:
replacement of one
community for
another
• Primary succession/
pioneer community:
first organisms into
an area- Ex. Mosses,
lichens
ECOLOGY
• Secondary
succession: a
community is
replaced by another
one due to some
natural disasterflood, fire
ECOLGY
• Carrying Capacity:
The number of
organisms an area
can support
Makes an S shaped
curve.
ECOLOGY
• Exponential growth:
organisms growing
without any limits
• Curve goes straight
up.
ECOLOGY
• NICHE: the job or
role an organism has
in an ecosystem
• Producer: plantsanything that makes
it’s own food
(autotroph)
• Consumer: anything
that has to get it’s
own food.
ECOLOGY
• DECOMPOSERS:
Take care of all the
dead organic matter
• Ex. Bacteria/ fungi
ECOLOGY
• Synbiosis: a close
•
•
•
•
personal relationship
between two or more
organisms
3 Types:
Mutualism: both benefit
ex. Bees and flowers
Parasitism: one harms
the other- Dog and flea
Commensalism- one
benefits the other is
neither harmed nor
benefitted ex. Whales
and barnacles
ECOLOGY
• Predator/Prey –
Lions and zebras
• Boom/Bust curve- as
one increases, the
other decreases.
ECOLOGY
• Food Chain- two or
three organisms that
demonstrate the flow
of energy
• Food Web- many
organisms that
demonstrate the flow
of energy in an
ecosystem
ECOLOGY
• Ecology Pyramidsshow you biomass or
energy flow.
• Plants make up the
most biomass and
have the most energy