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The Circulatory System (A) – Dylan, Elizabeth, Ryan
What is the job of the Circulatory System?
The Circulatory System is responsible for transporting materials throughout the
entire body. It transports nutrients, water, and oxygen to your billions of body cells
and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce. It is an
amazing highway that travels through your entire body connecting all your body
Parts of the Circulatory System
The circulatory System is divided into three major parts:
1. The Heart
2. The Blood
3. The Blood Vessels
The Heart
The Heart is an amazing organ. The heart beats about 3 BILLION times during an
average lifetime. It is a muscle about the size of your fist. The heart is located in the
center of your chest slightly to the left. Its job is to pump your blood and keep the
blood moving throughout your body.
It is your job to keep your heart healthy and there are three main things you need to
remember in order to keep your heart healthy.
1. Exercise on a regular basis. Get outside and play. Keep that body moving
(walk, jog, run, bike, skate, jump, and swim).
2. Eat Healthy. Remember the Food Pyramid and make sure your eating your
food from the bottom to top.
3. Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke!
The Blood
The blood is an amazing substance that is constantly flowing through our bodies.
Your blood is pumped by your heart.
Your blood travels through thousands of miles of blood vessels right within
your own body.
Your blood carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from
your body cells.
A young person has about a gallon of blood. An adult has about 5 quarts.
Your blood is not just a red liquid but rather is made up of liquids, solids and
small amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells are responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red
Blood Cells pick up oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the body cells.
After delivering the oxygen to the cells it gathers up the carbon dioxide (a
waste gas produced as our cells are working) and transports carbon dioxide
back to the lungs where it is removed from the body when we exhale (breath
out). There are about 5,000,000 Red Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood.
White Blood Cells (Germinators)
White Blood Cells help the body fight off germs. White Blood Cells attack and
destroy germs when they enter the body. When you have an infection your
body will produce more White Blood Cells to help fight an infection.
Sometimes our White Blood Cells need a little help and the Doctor will
prescribe an antibiotic to help our White Blood Cells fight a large scale
Platelets are blood cells that help stop bleeding. When we cut ourselves we
have broken a blood vessel and the blood leaks out. In order to plug up the
holes where the blood is leaking from the platelets start to stick to the
opening of the damaged blood vessels. As the platelets stick to the opening
of the damaged vessel they attract more platelets, fibers and other blood cells
to help form a plug to seal the broken blood vessel. When the platelet plug is
completely formed the wound stops bleeding. We call our platelet plugs
Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. Approximately half of your blood is
made of plasma. The plasma carries the blood cells and other components
throughout the body. Plasma is made in the liver.
Where are the blood cells made?
The Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets are made by the bone
marrow. Bone marrow is a soft tissue inside of our bones that produces blood cells.
The Blood Vessels
Three types of blood vessels:
1. Arteries
2. Capillaries
3. Veins
Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood AWAY from the heart.
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels as thin as or thinner than the hairs on your
head. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Food substances (nutrients),
oxygen and wastes pass in and out of your blood through the capillary walls.
Veins carry blood back toward your heart.
One drop of blood contains a half a drop of plasma, 5 MILLION Red
Blood Cells, 10 Thousand White Blood Cells and 250 Thousand
You have thousands of miles of blood vessels in your body. "Bill Nye
the Science Guy" claims that you could wrap your blood vessels around
the equator TWICE!
You heart is going to have to beat about 3 BILLION times during your
Circulatory System Poem
Here’s my story,
It's what they call my system,
I got veins and arteries,
For blood,
And you can’t miss ‘em…
Surely, I am circulatory,
Blood's pumped,
Round and round...
Use my heart,
And blood vessels,
Surely will astound…
Veins bring blood,
To my heart,
To lungs,
Is where it's pumped...
Oxygen comes from lungs,
My heart goes thump-thump-thump...
Blood from lungs,
Returns to heart,
And then to arteries,
Which carry blood,
To every organ,
In every part-a-me…
Surely, I am circulatory,
I pump blood round and round,
Use my heart,
And blood vessels,
surely I will astound!
The Circulatory System (B) – Megan R, Kevin, Justin
The circulatory system is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body.
It transport nutrients, water and oxygen to your billion of body cells and carries away the
wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce. It is an amazing highway that travels
through your entire body connecting all your body cells. Parts of the circulatory system
include the heart, the blood, red blood cells, white Blood Cells, platelets, plasma, arteries and
The circulatory system is made up of the vessels and the muscles that help and control the
flow of the blood around the body. This process is called circulation. The main parts of the
system are the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins.
As blood begins to circulate, it leaves the heart from the left ventricle and goes into the
aorta. The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The blood leaving the aorta is full of
oxygen. This is important for the cells in the brain and the body to do their work. The oxygen
rich blood travels throughout the body in its system of arteries into the smallest arterioles.
On its way back to the heart, the blood travels through a system of veins. As it reaches the
lungs, the carbon dioxide (a waste product) is removed from the blood and replace with fresh
oxygen that we have inhaled through the lungs.
Arteries are tough, elastic tubes that carry blood away from the heart. As the arteries move
away from the heart, they divide into smaller vessels. The largest arteries are about as thick
as a thumb. The smallest arteries are thinner than hair. These thinner arteries are called
arterioles. Arteries carry bright red blood. The color comes from the oxygen that it carries.
Veins carry the blood to the heart. The smallest veins are very thin. They join larger veins
that open into the heart. The veins carry dark red blood that doesn't have much oxygen.
Veins have thin walls. They don't need to be as strong as the arteries because as blood is
returned to the heart, it is under less pressure.
Your heart is divided into two sides. The right side pumps blood to your lungs where it picks
up oxygen. The left side pumps oxygen-soaked blood out to your body. They do not work on
their own, but together as a team. The body's blood is circulated through the heart more
than 1,000 times per day. Between five and six thousand quarts of blood are pumped each
day. Your heart is about the same size as your fist.
The Nervous System (A) – Nathan, Megan, Jordon
The brain receives STIMULI from the outside world gathered by the sense organs, eyes,
ears, nose, mouth and skin.
The reflex response- In some situations the SENSORY and motor neurons may work
together without involving the brain. This is known as reflex response.
Unlike the other body system the nervous system is made up of only one type of tissue
called NERVOUS TISSUE. Nervous tissue is made up of specialized cells called NEURONS.
A neuron receives messages from small branches of the cell called DENDRITES. The
incoming messages are passed from the dendrites through the cell body to the AXON.
The nervous system consists of many divisions; two of the most important are the Central
nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM- The central nervous system is composed of the brain
and spinal cord.
The Peripheral Nervous System- the Peripheral nervous system is made of the cranial
(head) and spinal nerves. Each nerve of the Peripheral nervous system is composed of two
types of neurons; Sensory and Motor.
Sensory neurons- carry information from the body to the central nervous system.
Motor neurons- carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles and
Somatic Nervous System- A division of the Peripheral Nervous System that gives you the
voluntary reflex the react to stimuli.
Autonomic Nervous System- The involuntary reflex to react to potentially harmful stimuli
for example if you put your hand on a hot element you pull away immediately, this is the
autonomic nervous system in action.
The brain is divided into three main sections; the Cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the
Reflexes- Protect you from injury by
reducing the time it take to react to
harmful stimuli.
Touch Receptors- Little receptors in
your fingers that allow blind people to
Neurological Disorders- Any disorder of
the bodies nervous system; Structural,
bio-chemical, or electric abnormalities
in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves
can result in an arrangement of
symptoms including seizures and
muscle weakness.
The Nervous System (B) – Michele, Gerardo, Cody
The nervous system is mostly made up of one type of tissue called nervous tissue that is
made for neurons. Neurons are specialized cells. You can found in the in your brain and in
the spinal cord and nerves.
Dendrites give a message to the neuron. The incoming messages are passed from the
dendrites through the cell body to the axon. The axon is a long extension of the cell that
ends in small branches.
The nervous system is organized in many divisions but there are two who are the most
1 .Central nervous system.
Central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The central nervous
system works with the brain who receives stimuli from the outside world gathered by the
sense organs that include: eyes ears mouth nose and skin.
2. Peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system is made up of the cranial and spinal nerves. This system is
composed for two types of neurons.
1. Sensory neurons.
2. Motor neurons.
Your autonomic nervous system is part of your nervous system that controls involuntary
actions, such as the beating of your heart and the widening or narrowing of your blood
vessels. When something goes wrong in this system it can cause serious problems
Blood pressure problems.
Heart problems.
Trouble with breathing and swallowing.
The Digestive System (A) – Nikki, Jon, Emily
Your digestive system is responsible for breaking down the food that you eat into parts that would be small
enough to be used by your cell. Every different energy source: Carbohydrates, lipids + proteins must be
broken down before they can travel through your digestive system. The digestive system is actually a long
tube with a few attachments it starts at the mouth and ends at the mouth and ends at the rectum
Types of Digestion
There are two different types of digestion. Mechanical digestion is one of them. This physically
breaks down normal food particles into smaller food particles. The other type of digestion is chemical
digestion. This type of digestion breaks down normal food particles into smaller food particles. Using a
substance called enzymes.
Mouth and Esophagus
Before the food you’ve eaten reaches the stomach it will come into contact with several organs.
Digestion begins at the mouth. While there the teeth mechanically digest food by grinding it and mixing it
with saliva. The saliva contains water that softens the food to make it easier to swallow. Saliva also has
enzymes known as amylase; amylase turns large starch molecules into sugar molecules. Once you’re ready
to swallow, your tongue will push your food to the back of your throat so that you can swallow it. Food
moves down into your stomach in a wave like movement called peristalsis. Peristalsis is caused by the
contraction of muscle tissue that lines the esophagus.
The stomach responds to the arrival of food by using the wall of the stomach known as gastric juice. Gastric
juice is composed of mucus, hydrochloric acid, water and digestive enzymes. The hydrochloric acid, along,
with enzymes chemically digest proteins into smaller particles. The mucus helps the stomach from digesting
the stomach. The stomach, slowly releases the food, which is now a liquid, into the small intestine.
Small Intestines
Food moves through the small intestine, chemical digestion continues. Here the pancreas sends digestive
enzymes into the small intestine. By doing that they complete the breakdown of starches and proteins. The
liver produces a substance called bile. The bile is stored in the gall bladder and the gall bladder sends the
bile into the small intestine where it breaks up large globules of lipids into much smaller droplets. Once
food has been broken up into small particles the small intestines absorb it up. The food molecules get
absorbed by the epithelial tissue on the small intestine and the nutrients are transferred to the blood
stream. The small intestine is 6 m long.
Large Intestine
By the time that the food reaches the large intestine, both types of digestion are complete. The large
intestine is about 1.5 metres long. It adsorbs water along with some vitamins.
The Digestive System (B) – Cory, Savanna, Richie
Science Notes
Salivary Glands
Gall Bladder
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Digestive Types:
Mechanical Digestion
Chemical Digestion
Break down food pieces into much smaller pieces (particles) so they can be absorbed and
transported throughout the body.
Living organisms require energy to survive. Before cells can use any of the energy sources for fuel,
they must be processed by your digestive system.
Mechanical involves the physical breakdown of food into very small pieces.
Chemical digestion involves the breakdown of large particles into smaller particles by substances
like enzymes.
The digestive system is a long tube with a few attachments. It starts at the mouth and ends at the
Your throat moves food down your stomach through a wavelike movement known as peristalsis.
Peristalsis is caused by the contraction of your esophagus.
Your digestive system is in charge of breaking down the food you eat into parts small enough to be
used by yourselves.
Digestion begins at the entrance to the tube, the mouth. Any parts of the food that have not been
digested are formed into feces, which is collected in the rectum.
The Excretory System (A) – Terrell, Abby, Eric
Liver: This organ is part of the digestive
system, but also plays a part in
excretion. It removes the toxic
ammonia out of the bloodstream and
replaces it with urea, which is a less
harmful substance. Although this
substance is less harmful, it still has to
be removed.
The Kidneys: Kidneys are 10 cm long and are
the main organs of excretion. They act as
filters by straining out unwanted urea, water,
salts and produces urine. The amount of urine
is the amount of water you drink. The kidneys
keep the proper amount of water in your
The Formation Of Urine: This formation is a complicated procedure.
The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery
The artery branches out and filters units called nephrons*
The nephrons remove waste from the blood and produces urine.
The clean blood returns to the body by the renal vein.
Ureter: Ureters are long tubes that
connect kidneys to the bladder.
The Bladder: The bladder is a sac
covered in muscle tissue. The
Urine enters the bladder and the
bladder expands.
The skin: The skin lets excess salt out from the sweat glands, AKA Sweat.
The Excretory System (B) – Kendra, Blake, TJ
-Removes waste
-Involves different organ systems
-Different organ systems interact to get rid of the waste
-Removes chemical and gaseous waste from the blood
-Includes the kidneys, bladder, lungs, skin and the liver
-The liver takes the highly toxic ammonia by the body’s cells, out of the bloodstream and converts
it into a less harmful substance called urea.
-Dead cells are removed from the body by the skin
-Liquid waste is removed from the body by the kidneys