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Transport and Circulation
Circulatory Systems in Animals
A. Internal Cavities
1. Transport in animals with only a few cell layers
B. Open Circulatory Systems
1. Insects and other arthropods
a. Blood mixes with other intracellular fluids
b. Fluid bathes cells
C. Closed Circulatory Systems
1. Blood moves through closed vessels
a. Blood moves faster than in open systems
b. More efficient transfer of oxygen and nutrients
Circulation in Vertebrates
A. Hearts
1. Two-chambered
a. Fish
2. Three-chambered
a. Amphibians, reptiles
3. Four-chambered
a. Mammals, birds, alligators, crocodiles
B. Blood Vessels
The Human Heart
A. Cardiac Cycle
1. Systole
a. Phase of contraction in a chamber
2. Diastole
a. Phase of relaxation in a chamber
B. Pacemaker
1. Sends electrical impulses that cause heart contractions
a. Located in right atrial walls
b. Nerves from the body regulate the speed of the heart
Blood Vessels
A. Arteries
1. Elastic, muscular walls
a. Keep blood under pressure
2. Nerve signals can make arteries constrict or dilate
B. Veins
1. Thinner, less elastic, less muscle than arteries
2. Lower pressure than arteries
3. Valves and gravity aid flow back to the heart
C. Capillaries
1. One cell thick
2. Where transfer of gases and nutrients takes place
Composition of Blood
A. Plasma
1. Water with dissolved substances
a. Proteins
b. Sugars
c. Amino acids
d. Salts
e. Hormones
2. Variations in concentration
a. Metabolic imbalances
b. Kidney problems
B. Cells
1. Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
a. Hemoglobin carries oxygen
2. Leukocytes (white blood cells)
a. fight infection
3. Platelets
a. Responsible of clot formation (coagulation)
C. Lymphatic System
1. Drainage for intercellular fluids
The Circulatory System and Homeostasis
A. Homeostasis
1. Steady balance of the internal environment
B. Areas of Regulation
1. Body temperature
a. Dilation or constriction of blood vessels in the skin
2. Dissolved gases
a. Increase or decrease the flow of blood through the
3. Blood sugar
a. Hormones carried in blood regulate the
storage/release of glucose