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Transcript
LECTURE PRESENTATIONS
For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION
Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson
Chapter 22
Descent with Modification:
A Darwinian View of Life
Lectures by
Erin Barley
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.1
22.1: The Darwinian revolution challenged
traditional views of a young Earth
inhabited by unchanging species
• Darwin’s ideas had deep historical roots
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.2
1809
Lamarck publishes his
hypothesis of evolution.
1798
Malthus publishes
“Essay on the Principle
of Population.”
1812
1858
Cuvier publishes his extensive
studies of vertebrate fossils.
1795
Hutton proposes
his principle of
gradualism.
1830
Lyell publishes
Principles of Geology.
While studying species in
the Malay Archipelago,
Wallace (shown in 1848)
sends Darwin his hypothesis
of natural selection.
1790
1870
1809
183136
Charles Darwin
is born.
Darwin travels around
the world on HMS
Beagle.
1859
On the Origin of
Species is published.
1844
Darwin writes his
essay on descent
with modification.
The Galápagos Islands
Ideas About Change over Time
• The study of fossils helped to lay the
groundwork for Darwin’s ideas
• Fossils are remains or traces of organisms
from the past, usually found in sedimentary
rock, which appears in layers or strata
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.3
Sedimentary rock
layers (strata)
Younger stratum
with more recent
fossils
Older stratum
with older fossils
Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution
• Lamarck hypothesized that species evolve
through use and disuse of body parts and the
inheritance of acquired characteristics
• The mechanisms he proposed are unsupported
by evidence
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
22.2: Descent with modification by natural
selection explains the adaptations of
organisms and the unity and diversity of life
• During his travels on the Beagle, Darwin collected
specimens of South American plants and animals
• He observed that fossils resembled living species
from the same region, and living species
resembled other species from nearby regions
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.5
The Voyage of the Beagle
Darwin in 1840,
after his return
from the
voyage
HMS Beagle in port
Great
Britain
EUROPE
NORTH
AMERICA
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
The
Galápagos
Islands
AFRICA
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Pinta
Genovesa
Santiago
Fernandina
Isabela
0
20
40
Kilometers
Daphne
Islands
Pinzón
Santa Santa
Cruz
Fe
Florenza
Equator
SOUTH
AMERICA
Equator
Chile
PACIFIC
OCEAN
San
Cristobal
Española
Andes Mtns.
Marchena
Brazil
Malay Archipelago
PACIFIC
OCEAN
AUSTRALIA
Cape of
Argentina Good Hope
Cape Horn
Tasmania
New
Zealand
Darwin’s Focus on Adaptation
• In reassessing his observations, Darwin
perceived adaptation to the environment and
the origin of new species as closely related
processes
– From studies made years after Darwin’s
voyage, biologists have concluded that this is
what happened to the Galápagos finches
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Darwin saw organisms adapted to their environment
(b) Insect-eater
(a) Cactus-eater
(c) Seed-eater
• In 1844, Darwin wrote an essay on natural
selection as the mechanism of descent with
modification
• Natural selection is a process in which
individuals with favorable inherited traits are more
likely to survive and reproduce
• Published The Origin of Species
• Explained three broad observations:
– The unity of life
– The diversity of life
– The match between organisms and their
environment
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• In the Darwinian view, the history of life is
like a tree with branches representing life’s
diversity
– Darwin’s theory meshed well with the
hierarchy of Linnaeus
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Hyracoidea
(Hyraxes)
Sirenia
(Manatees
and relatives)
†Moeritherium
Descent with
modification
†Barytherium
†Deinotherium
†Mammut
†Platybelodon
†Stegodon
†Mammuthus
Elephas maximus
(Asia)
Loxodonta africana
(Africa)
Loxodonta cyclotis
(Africa)
60
34
24
Millions of years ago
5.5 2 104 0
Years ago
Artificial selection
Cabbage
Selection for
apical (tip) bud
Brussels
sprouts Selection for
axillary (side)
buds
Broccoli
Selection
for flowers
and stems
Selection
for stems
Selection
for leaves
Kale
Wild mustard
Kohlrabi
Descent with modification :
• Observation #1: Members of a population often
vary in their inherited traits
• Inference #1: Individuals whose inherited traits
give them a higher probability of surviving and
reproducing leave more offspring than others
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Observation #2: All species can produce more
offspring than the environment can support, and
many of these offspring fail to survive and
reproduce
• Inference #2: This unequal ability of individuals to
survive and reproduce will
lead to the accumulation of
favorable traits in the
population over generations
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
What happens at intersection?
Natural Selection: A Summary
• Natural selection is the mechanism which
directs the process of descent with
modification
• Natural selection says:
– Individuals with certain heritable characteristics
survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other
individuals
– Natural selection increases the adaptation of
organisms to their environment over time
– If an environment changes over time, natural
selection may result in adaptation to these new
conditions and may give rise to new species
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
An example of adaptation
(a) A flower mantid in Malaysia
(b) A leaf mantid in Borneo
• Note: that individuals do not evolve;
populations evolve over time
• Note: Natural selection can only increase or
decrease heritable traits that already exist and
vary in a population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
22.3: Evolution is supported by an
overwhelming amount of scientific evidence
• Evidence continues to fill the gaps identified by
Darwin in The Origin of Species
1. Direct observations
2. Homology
3. Embryology
4. Vestigial Organs
5. Fossil record
6. Biogeography
7. Biochemistry (later chapters)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evidence 1: Direct Observations of
Evolutionary Change
• Two examples provide evidence for natural
selection: natural selection in response to
introduced plant species, and the evolution
of drug-resistant bacteria
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Natural Selection in Response to Introduced
Plant Species
• Soapberry bugs use their “beak” to feed on
seeds within fruits
• In southern Florida soapberry bugs feed on
balloon vine with larger fruit; they have longer
beaks
• In central Florida they feed on goldenrain tree
with smaller fruit; they have shorter beaks
• Correlation between fruit size and beak size has
also been observed in Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Australia
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• In all cases, beak size has evolved in
populations that feed on introduced plants
with fruits that are smaller or larger than the
native fruits
• These cases are examples of evolution by
natural selection
• In Florida this evolution in beak size occurred
in less than 35 years
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.13a
FIELD STUDY
Soapberry bug with beak
inserted in balloon vine fruit
Can a change in a population’s food source result in evolution by natural selection?
RESULTS
Beak
10
On native species,
southern Florida
8
Number of individuals
6
4
2
0
Museum-specimen average
10
On introduced species,
central Florida
8
6
4
2
0
6
7
8
9
Beak length (mm)
10
11
The Evolution of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
• The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is
commonly found on people
• One strain, methicillin-resistant S. aureus
(MRSA) is a dangerous pathogen
– S. aureus became resistant to penicillin in 1945,
two years after it was first widely used
– S. aureus became resistant to methicillin in
1961, two years after it was first widely used
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Methicillin works by inhibiting a protein used by
bacteria in their cell walls
• MRSA bacteria use a different protein in their
cell walls
• When exposed to methicillin, MRSA strains are
more likely to survive and reproduce than
nonresistant S. aureus strains
• MRSA strains are now resistant to many
antibiotics
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.14
2,750,000
1
250,000 base pairs
2,500,000
Chromosome map
of S. aureus clone USA300
500,000
Key to adaptations
2,250,000
Methicillin resistance
Ability to colonize hosts
750,000
Increased disease severity
2,000,000
Increased gene exchange
(within species) and
toxin production
1,750,000
1,500,000
1,250,000
1,000,000
• Natural selection does not create new traits, but
edits or selects for traits already present in the
population
• The local environment determines which traits will
be selected for or selected against in any specific
population
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evidence type 2: Homology
• Homology is similarity resulting from common
ancestry
• Homologous structures are anatomical
resemblances that represent variations on a
structural theme present in a common ancestor
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.15
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Human
Cat
Whale
Bat
Figure 22.16
Evidence 3: Comparative embryology reveals
anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms
Pharyngeal
pouches
Post-anal
tail
Chick embryo (LM)
Human embryo
• Evidence 4: Vestigial structures are
remnants of features that served important
functions in the organism’s ancestors
– Human vestigial structures, ex. Coccyx,
appendix,
– Examples of homologies at the molecular level
are genes shared among organisms inherited
from a common ancestor
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Homologies and “Tree Thinking”
• Evolutionary trees are hypotheses about the
relationships among different groups
• Homologies form nested patterns in
evolutionary trees
• Evolutionary trees can be made using different
types of data, for example, anatomical and
DNA sequence data
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tree thinking: information provided in an evolutionary tree.
Branch point
Lungfishes
Amniotes
2
Digitbearing
limbs
Amnion
Mammals
Lizards
and snakes
3
4
Homologous
characteristic
Crocodiles
Ostriches
6
Feathers
Hawks and
other birds
Birds
5
Tetrapods
Amphibians
1
Comparing physical structure might bring
erroneous conclusions regarding
relationships
• Convergent evolution is the evolution of
similar, or analogous, features in distantly
related groups
• Analogous traits arise when groups
independently adapt to similar environments
in similar ways
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.18
NORTH
AMERICA
Sugar
glider
AUSTRALIA
Flying
squirrel
Evidence 5: The Fossil Record
• The fossil record provides evidence of the
extinction of species, the origin of new groups,
and changes within groups over time
• Fossils can document important transitions
– For example, the transition from land to sea
in the ancestors of cetaceans
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 22.19
Most mammals
(a) Canis (dog)
Cetaceans and even-toed ungulates
(b) Pakicetus
(c) Sus (pig)
(d) Odocoileus (deer)
Figure 22.UN01
Figure 22.20
Other
even-toed
ungulates
Hippopotamuses
†Pakicetus
†Rodhocetus
Common
ancestor
of cetaceans
†Dorudon
Living
cetaceans
70
60
50
40
30
20
Millions of years ago
10
0
Key
Pelvis
Femur
Tibia
Foot
Evidence 6. Biogeography
• Biogeography, the geographic distribution of
species, provides evidence of evolution
• Earth’s continents were formerly united in a
single large continent called Pangaea, but have
since separated by continental drift
• An understanding of continent movement and
modern distribution of species allows us to
predict when and where different groups
evolved
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Endemic species are species that are not
found anywhere else in the world
• Islands have many endemic species that are
often closely related to species on the nearest
mainland or island
• Darwin explained that species on islands gave
rise to new species as they adapted to new
environments
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.