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Download “History of Evolutionary Thought” Game Cards: 3 pts. Darwin
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“History of Evolutionary Thought” Game Cards: 3 pts. Darwin collected many organisms from these volcanic islands off the coast of South America. 3 pts. Choose one answer: Darwin noted that fossils in South America more closely resembled a) fossils from the same era in Europe or b) fossils of other organisms now living in South America. 3 pts. Where did Wallace do his most significant work? 3 pts. What is the title and publication date of Darwin’s most significant publication? 3 pts. Darwin acquired his degree in the field of _____? 4 pts. Who believed in uniformitarianism— an off-shoot of gradualism in which it was theorized that all earth processes occurred at a fixed rate over time? 4 pts. Who believed in gradualism, in which it was theorized that geological features were formed by the weathering of the lithosphere over a long period of time? 4 pts. Who developed a nearly identical theory of natural selection around the same time as Darwin? 4 pts. Who purported that populations have the potential to grow exponentially due to the high reproductive potential of all organisms? 4pts. Who believed in the concept of acquired inheritance, that the use of a trait allows that trait to develop over time and be passed on to one’s offspring? 4 pts. Name the two most widely accepted ideas that Darwin had to overcome in order to promote his ideas about natural selection. 4 pts. Name three main ideas of the creationist viewpoint that differ from the evolutionist viewpoint. 5 pts. How long did it take the groundshaking ideas proposed by Darwin and Wallace to become widely accepted by the scientific community? 5 pts. Who created the binomial classification system for organisms that is still in use today? 6 pts. Darwin noted that plants and animals of South American temperate regions more closely resembled plants and animals from _____ rather than those found in the same climate of _____. 6 pts. What was Cuvier’s belief called, in which periodic natural disasters wiped out large groups of organisms that were eventually replaced by organisms from another region? 6 pts. Name two reasons the publication of Origin of the Species succeeded in changing the direction of scientific thought when other proposals by other men had failed? 6 pts. Name the approximate years which Darwin’s and Wallace’s main thesis ideas were recorded on paper 6 pts. Who developed paleontology when he realized that the order and layers of rocks could be used to determine the relative ages of fossilized organisms? 6 pts. Name two of the five scientists from the 1940s credited with bringing together genetics, paleontology, biogeography, taxonomy and the biology of specific organisms to create the “Modern Synthesis”. 6 pts. Give Darwin’s age at each of the following points in his life: a) going to college b) setting sail on the Beagle c) publishing his book. 6 pts. Who believed in the view of nature that assumed organisms were fixed and not evolving and could be placed on a ladder of increasing complexity? “Origin of Life and the Fossil Record” 3 pts. Which taxonomic group listed is the oldest: Fungi, Bacteria, Protists, Archeabacteria, Plants, Animals? 3pts. Approximately how old is the earth, according to geologic dating? 3 pts. Approximately when did life on earth first appear in the geologic record? 4 pts. What are protobionts? 4 pts. Name one of the energy sources thought to drive the anabolic reactions of the first molecules of life? 4 pts. What molecule was most likely the first hereditary material—DNA, RNA or proteins? 4 pts. A reducing atmosphere would cause ______ reactions while an oxidizing atmosphere would cause ______ reactions. 4 pts. What is the two-word term for life being created from non-living things? 4 pts. What is the term for the theory that living things only come from other living things? (biogenesis) 5 pts. According to the most recent hypothesis, what would the first organic monomers have been? 5 pts. Name two things that are “lifelike” that protobionts can do spontaneously. 5 pts. What were the first multicellular eukaryotes? 5 pts. When did the first eukaryotes (endosymbionts) evolve? 5 pts. In what two places in our solar system are scientists looking for evidence of life (past or present)? 5 pts. Describe two traits of the planet earth during it first 1 billion years? 5 pts. Animals emerged in the Precambrian era, but species richness occurred in which era? 6 pts. In which period did plants, fungi and animals appear, according to the fossil record? 6 pts. Besides the reducing atmosphere hypothesis, name two other ways or places in which the first organic molecules are speculated to have formed. 6 pts. Name the two men who independently came up with the reducing atmosphere hypothesis. 6 pts. Describe two traits of the earth between 3.5-2.0 bya? 6 pts. Name the two scientists to simulate the conditions on earth as it might have been 4 bya, in order to see if they could produce organic molecules from inorganic substances. 6 pts. Describe a circumstance in which organic monomers may have formed polymers without the use of enzymes and cellular components. “Processes of Evolution” Game Cards: 3 pts. According to the biological species concept, what is a species? 3 pts. What is the term that means the evolution of a new species? 3 pts. Those organisms who are more fit to survive are more likely to reproduce. True or false? 3 pts. Whatever trait is advantageous today will be advantageous in the future as well. True or false? 3 pts. Acquired somatic characteristics can be inherited. True or false? 4 pts. Animal husbandry and cultivated plants are examples of what type of selection? 4 pts. Natural selection occurs at what level – the individual, population, community, ecosystem or biosphere? 3 pts. A trait must allow an organism to be stronger, faster or otherwise more able in order for it to be called an advantageous adaptation. True or false? 4 pts. Name two ways the fossil record conflicts with the creationist concept. 3 pts. Organisms will evolve into better, stronger, more intelligent or more complex organisms over time. True or false? 4 pts. Darwin’s theory of natural selection lacked a critical piece of support, which was supplied by the work of what man: Malthus, Lyell, Wallace, Mendel, Lamarck, or Hutton? 4 pts. Two closely related species share a common ___. 4 pts. Name two hypotheses that Darwin incorporated from Hutton and Lyell. 5 pts. Name the species concept that defines a species in terms of its niche. 5 pts. Give the term for similarities in genes or structures inherited from a common ancestor. 4 pts. What fact of nature, pointed out by Malthus, is responsible for the struggle for existence among organisms? 5 pts. What term is used when a taxonomic group branches out to fill a new niche, speciating in the process? 5 pts. What is the name for a structure with no apparent function, that exists simply because it was passed down from an ancestor? 4 pts. The idea that speciation occurs in relatively fast spurts over time rather than by steady, accumulated change over a long period of time is called…? 4 pts. What do we call the process that results in the evolution of a new taxonomic group? 5 pts. Name two types of species for which the biological species concept is inaccurate or does not apply. 5 pts. Name the species concept that defines a species as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history. 5 pts. Name the species concept that defines a species according to its physical characteristics. 5 pts. Name two prezygotic barriers that impede mating between similar but distinct species. 5 pts. Name the term that describes a change in the growth rate genes that allows sexual maturity in a juvenile body form. 5 pts. What is the name for the class of genes that controls the placement and spatial organization of the body parts? 5 pts. What is the term for the type of speciation that occurs when a population is geographically separated? 5 pts. What is the term for the type of speciation that occurs when populations diverge due to biologic factors? 5 pts. Environmental obstacles do not cause adaptation; ____ is already present in the population and allows adaptation to occur over generations. 5 pts. What were the two main points in Darwin’s book? 5 pts. What is the term for the geographic distribution of organisms in which it was proven that organisms located closer to one another on earth are more similar than organisms that are located away from each other? 5 pts. What phrase did Darwin use that has the same meaning as “evolution”? 6 pts. Give an example of a genotype or a phenotype that could be detrimental in one environment and advantageous in another. 6 pts. Name two types of postzygotic barriers that prevent two species from merging through interbreeding. 6 pts. Describe one observable example of evolutionary survival of the fittest. 6 pts. What is the term for evolution that arises from a change in morphology due to allometric growth? 6 pts. Give one example of a complex organ or mechanism that has evolved in small steps over time. 6 pts. What is the term for the growth that causes huge differences in limbs, skulls and other parts of the body and that can occur by changing only a few genes that control the rate of growth of an embryo, fetus, juvenile or adolescent? 6 pts. Name a molecular homology that is common in all mammals. “Population Genetics” Game Cards: 3 pts. Mutations in an organism’s heritable DNA (their gametes) is likely or unlikely to be beneficial? 3 pts. What happens to populations when they do not meet all 5 criteria of HardyWeinberg equilibrium? 3 pts. How do fast generation rates (such as those for bacteria) correlate with mutation rates? 3 pts. Most mutations alter protein synthesis. True or false? 4 pts. What is the term that means the total aggregate of genes in a population at any given time? 4 pts. What is the only source of new alleles? 4 pts. What is the key difference between microevolution and macroevolution? 4 pts. What term is used when a small population colonizes a new habitat, limiting the genetic variation in that population? 4 pts. What is the term for the effect disasters, earthquakes, floods or storms have when they wipe out a significant portion of the population, leaving only a small portion of the alleles? 4 pts. Name the mechanism that allows populations to adapt to their environment over generations. 4 pts. What do you call a localized group of interbreeding individuals? 4 pts. What type of natural selection favors variants of opposite extremes in a population, splitting the population into two morphs? 4 pts. What type of selection favors the most common morph, culling extreme morphs from either end of the spectrum and thus limiting the phenotypic variation in a population? 4 pts. How often are natural populations in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? 4 pts. What type of natural selection favors variants of one extreme and thereby shifts the overall makeup of a population? 4 pts. What term is used to describe genetic exchange caused by migration of organisms or the gametes of organisms? 4 pts. What do we call small changes in gene frequencies from generation to generation? 4 pts. What is the type of selection that occurs between a male and female of a species regarding mate choice? 4 pts. What evolutionary mechanism accounts for a change in a population’s allele frequency due to chance? 5 pts. Name the type of natural selection that occurs when intra-specific competition is very intense, such that the members of a population must divide the niche and its resources among themselves. 5 pts. Name the type of selection that occurs most often in unchanging conditions 5 pts. Name the term that describes the physical differences between two sexes. 5 pts. What type of characteristics vary along a continuum (such as height) within a population and are controlled by 2+ gene loci? 5 pts. What is competition between members of the same sex within the same species called? 5 pts. Describe the mathematical relationship between “p” and “q” if they represent the frequency of two alleles at a single locus that displays simple Mendelian genetics. 5 pts. What is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation? 5 pts. What theorem describes a nonevolving population’s gene pool? 5 pts. What term is used to describe a population in which 2 or more distinct morphs are represented in high enough frequencies to be noticeable? 5 pts. What do you call the differences in phenotype caused by changes along a geographic axis like altitude or longitude? 5 pts. Selection only acts on: genotype, phenotype, the entire genome, each allele or the entire gene pool? 5 pts. How is sexual reproduction an advantage over asexual reproduction? 5 pts. What do you call differences between gene pools of physically separated populations? 6 pts. Describe 2 qualities or characteristics that would make one organism more “fit” than another organism. 6 pts. Name the type of selection that most commonly occurs during periods of environmental change or when members of a population migrate to a new habitat with new conditions. 6 pts. Name two mechanisms that prevent natural selection from eliminating unfavorable genotypes. 6 pts. A population has two alleles, B and b. If the frequency of B=0.8, what is the frequency of b? 6 pts. In a population that is in HardyWeinberg equilibrium, 16% of the individuals show the recessive phenotype. What is the frequency of the dominant allele in the population? 6 pts. What are the five conditions necessary to meet Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium? 6 pts. Survival of the fittest is usually a passive competition between individuals rather than a physical competition. Give an example of this passive competition. 6 pts. How much nucleotide diversity exists between two humans? 6 pts. Name one reason that natural selection does not create the most perfect organism (faster, smarter, more complex...) over time. 6 pts. How much gene diversity exists between two humans? 6 pts. Two alleles, B and b, exist in a population where B has the frequency of 0.7. What is the frequency of heterozygotes if the population is in HardyWeinberg equilibrium?