Download Polis - By the Bellamy River

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

List of oracular statements from Delphi wikipedia, lookup

Acropolis of Athens wikipedia, lookup

Sacred Band of Thebes wikipedia, lookup

First Persian invasion of Greece wikipedia, lookup

Theorica wikipedia, lookup

Theban–Spartan War wikipedia, lookup

300 (film) wikipedia, lookup

Athenian democracy wikipedia, lookup

Epikleros wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek warfare wikipedia, lookup

Spartan army wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
The Greek City-States
The Polis
Acropolis of Athens
• Acropolis- Fortified hill
at the center of a Greek
city. A temple of the
local god stood at the
top.
• Agora- Open air
marketplace located at
the foot of the acropolis.
• Polis (city-state)- Made
up of farming villages
(which became cities),
fields, orchards,
acropolis, and agora.
City-States
• Each city-state:
o Had its own
government.
o Had between 5,00010,000 people.
o Only allowed
native-born people
to be citizens, vote,
own property, and
take part in
government and the
army.
Sparta
• In south-central Greece, area known as the Peloponnesus.
• First ruled by a king.
• Aristocrats (nobles)- People with privileges based on
heredity (born into them).
• Aristocrats took over the government around 800 B.C.E.
Spartan Government
• 2 Kings with little power- led army and held religious
ceremonies.
• Only aristocrats could be citizens.
• All citizens over 20 were members of the Assembly
which passed laws and decided questions of war and
peace.
• Ephors- five men chosen to lead the Assembly.
• Council of Elders- Men over 60 who helped the ephors
and served as a court.
Spartan Society
• Spartan land farmed by helots- enslaved people owned
by Sparta.
• Helots had to give ½ their crops to aristocrat
landowners.
• Perioeci (pār ē ē sī)- Merchants or artisans who lived in
Sparta. Neither slaves nor aristocrats.
• 750 B.C.E. there were 20 times more helots and
perioeci than aristocrats.
Spartan Life
• Strong military-minded people.
• Unhealthy babies were left on hillsides to die.
• Boys sent to military camps at age 7 trained to be
soldiers.
• Men married at 20 and lived in military Barracks.
Could retire from army at age 60.
• Women had more freedom than other Greeks. Could
mix freely with men and attend sporting events.
• Spartans resisted
change believed
new ideas would
weaken their way of
life.
• Resisted use of coin
money, literature and
art.
• Remained a farming
society based on slave
labor.
Spartan Market
Athens
• First ruled by kings.
• 750 B.C.E. – nobles,
merchants, and
manufacturers took
over government and
set up an oligarchy.
• oligarchy- government
where a few people
have ruling power.
• Solon- rich merchant who set
up a constitution in 594 B.C.E.
• Constitution- a set of principles
and rules for governing.
• This limited power of rich, gave
landowners right to vote in the
Assembly or ruling body.
– Assembly could make laws.
Solon
• Solon erased all debts.
• Offered citizenship to more
people.
• Peisistratus (pī sis’ trah tus) took over government
in 560 B.C.E.
• Supported lower classes  divided large estates
among landless farmers.
• No land requirements for citizenship.
• Encouraged the arts.
• After Peisistratus’ death, Athenian government
overthrown by Sparta.
• 508 B.C.E. Spartans overthrown by noble
Cleisthenes (klīs’ thuh nēz)
• He set up government that was democratic- favored
the equality of all people.
• Assembly was open to all males over 20.
Pythagoras
• Council of Five HundredNames of 500 citizens
chosen at random each year.
• Managed daily business of
Athens.
• Could only serve two terms.
• Citizens required to educate
their sons.
• Boys studied writing, math,
and music.
• At 18 males became citizens
and took an oath to Athens.
Oath Taken by All Athenian Men
• I will never disgrace my sacred arms nor desert my
comrades in the ranks.
• I will fight for temples and for public property, whether
alone or with my fellows.
• I will leave my country not less, but greater and better than I
found it.
• I will obey the magistrates and observe the existing laws,
and those the people may hereafter make.
• If anyone tries to overthrow or disobey the laws I will resist
him in their defense, whether alone or with my fellows.
• I will honor the temples and religion of my forefathers.