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Transcript
GENERAL BODY
AND
DIRECTIONAL TERMS
BRANCHES OF SCIENCE
THAT STUDY THE HUMAN BODY
• Anatomy
• Biology
• Embryology
• Histology
• Pathology
• Physiology
THE BODY IN GENERAL
• Cells are the basic unit of life
• Cells of similar function join together to form tissue
• Groups of tissue join together to form organs
• Groups of organs work together to perform a complex functionbody system
• Trillions of cells vary in size and shape according to their function
• Specialized cells are responsible for growth, secretions, excretions, nutrition,
reproduction
• Mechanical, chemical and nervous stimulation activate the cells
CELLS
• Epithelial
• Fat
• Muscle
• Nerve
TISSUE
• Connective
• Main types
• Bone
• Cartilage
• Dense fibrous
• Loose
• Adipose
• Epithelial
• Muscle
• Nerve
ORGANS
• When two or more kinds of tissue work together, you have an organ
• Although they act as units, they do not function alone
• Several organs combine to form a body system
• Each system has a special function
BODY SYSTEMS
• Cardiovascular
• Reproductive
• Digestive or GI
• Respiratory
• Endocrine
• Sensory
• Integumentary
• Nervous
• Lymphatic
• Urinary
• Musculoskeletal
BODY CAVITIES
• Abdominal
• Cranial
• Pelvic
• Spinal
• Thoracic/Chest
• Pleural
ROOTS OF STRUCTURES
Root
What it means
Example term
Cyt/o
Cell
Cytology
Epitheli/o
Epithelium
Epithelioma
Fibr/o
Fibrous
Fibrosis
Hist/o
Tissue
Histologist
Lip/o
Fat
Liposuction
Myo
Muscle
Myositis
Neur/o
Nerve
Neuropathy
Organ/o
Organ
Organomegaly
Viscer/o
Internal organs
Viscera
What it means
STRUCTURAL SUFFIXES
Suffix
What it means
Example term
-cyte
Cell
Erythrocyte
-gen
Agent that causes
Carcinogen
-genic
Producing
Carcinogenic
-oma
Tumor or swelling
Myoma
-osis
Abnormal condition
Cytosis
-pathy
Disease
Neuropathy
-plasm
Growth or formation
Neoplasm
-sarcoma
Malignant tumor
Myosarcoma
What it means
DIRECTIONAL TERMS
• Used to pinpoint or specifically locate an area on the body
• Anatomical position
• Anatomical plane
• Frontal/Coronal
• Mid-sagittal
• Sagittal
DIRECTIONAL TERMS (CONT.)
• Ventral
• Lateral
• Dorsal
• Medial
• Cephalad
• Distal
• Caudal
• Proximal
• Superior/Inferior
• Ipsilateral
• Mediolateral
ROOT WORDS
Root word
What it means
Anter/o
Front
Caud/o
Tail or downward
Cephal/o
Head or upward
Dist/o
Away from (distant) the point of orgin
Dors/o
Back
Infer/o
Below
Later/o
Side
Medi/o
Middle
Poster/o
Back or behind
Proxim/o
Near to (proximity) the point of origin
Super/o
Above
Ventr/o
Front or belly
REGIONS OF THE BODY
• Anatomical divisions of the abdomen
• Diagnose abd. Problems with greater accuracy
• Hypochondriac
• Epigastric
• Lumbar
• Umbilical
• Inguinal/Iliac
• Hypogastric
QUADRANTS
• RUQ
• LUQ
• RLQ
• LLQ
DIVISIONS OF THE BACK
Division
Abbreviation
Location
Cervical
C
Neck region, there are seven
cervical vertebrae (C1-C7)
Thoracic
T or D (D=dorsal)
Chest region; there are 12
thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12),
each attached to a rib
Lumbar
L
Loin or flank region (between
ribs and hip bone), there are
five lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)
Sacral
D
Five bones (S1-S5), fused to
form the sacrum
Coccygeal
(none)
Coccyx (tailbone) composed
of four fused pieces
Region
Auricular
Axillary
Buccal
Clavicular
Infraorbital
Infrascapular
Lumbar
Mammary
Mental
Orbital
Pubic
Sacral
Sternal
Submental
Supraclavicular
Where it is