Download Gas Chromatography

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Organic chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Thermoelectric materials wikipedia , lookup

History of manufactured fuel gases wikipedia , lookup

Atomic absorption spectroscopy wikipedia , lookup

Thermal spraying wikipedia , lookup

Aliso Canyon gas leak wikipedia , lookup

Industrial gas wikipedia , lookup

Carbon monoxide detector wikipedia , lookup

Gamma spectroscopy wikipedia , lookup

Chromatography wikipedia , lookup

Cocrystal wikipedia , lookup

Countercurrent chromatography wikipedia , lookup

Size-exclusion chromatography wikipedia , lookup

High-performance liquid chromatography wikipedia , lookup

X-ray fluorescence wikipedia , lookup

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry wikipedia , lookup

Gas chromatography wikipedia , lookup

Gas chromatography
Prof S Paul
B.Tech (Hons), M.Tech, Ph.D
Professor, Metallurgical & Material Engg. Dept.
Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India
In Gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as
helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer
on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column (an homage to the fractionating
column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph
(or "aerograph", "gas separator").
The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is coated with different
stationary phases. This causes each compound to elute at a different time, known as the retention time of the
compound. The comparison of retention times is what gives GC its analytical usefulness.
A gas chromatograph uses a flow-through narrow tube known as the column, through which different chemical
constituents of a sample pass in a gas stream (carrier gas, mobile phase) at different rates depending on their
various chemical and physical properties and their interaction with a specific column filling, called the
stationary phase. As the chemicals exit the end of the column, they are detected and identified electronically.
The function of the stationary phase in the column is to separate different components, causing each one to exit
the column at a different time (retention time). Other parameters that can be used to alter the order or time of
retention are the carrier gas flow rate, column length and the temperature.
In a GC analysis, a known volume of gaseous or liquid analyte is injected into the "entrance" (head) of the
column, usually using a microsyringe (or, solid phase microextraction fibers, or a gas source switching system).
As the carrier gas sweeps the analyte molecules through the column, this motion is inhibited by the adsorption
of the analyte molecules either onto the column walls or onto packing materials in the column. The rate at
which the molecules progress along the column depends on the strength of adsorption, which in turn depends on
the type of molecule and on the stationary phase materials. Since each type of molecule has a different rate of
progression, the various components of the analyte mixture are separated as they progress along the column and
reach the end of the column at different times (retention time). A detector is used to monitor the outlet stream
from the column; thus, the time at which each component reaches the outlet and the amount of that component
can be determined. Generally, substances are identified (qualitatively) by the order in which they emerge (elute)
from the column and by the retention time of the analyte in the column.
The choice of carrier gas (mobile phase) is important, with hydrogen being the most efficient and providing the best
separation. However, helium has a larger range of flowrates that are comparable to hydrogen in efficiency, with the
added advantage that helium is non-flammable, and works with a greater number of detectors. Therefore, helium is the
most common carrier gas used.
Detectoron are the flame ionization detector (FID) and the thermal conductivity detector (TCD). Both are sensitive to a
wide range of components, and both work over a wide range of concentrations. While TCDs are essentially universal and
can be used to detect any component other than the carrier gas (as long as their thermal conductivities are different
from that of the carrier gas, at detector temperature), FIDs are sensitive primarily to hydrocarbons, and are more
sensitive to them than TCD. However, an FID cannot detect water. Both detectors are also quite robust. Since TCD is
non-destructive, it can be operated in-series before an FID (destructive), thus providing complementary detection of the
same analytes.
The thermal conductivity detector (TCD), also known as a Katharometer, is a bulk property detector and a chemical
specific detector commonly used in gas-liquid chromatography. [1]This detector senses changes in the thermal
conductivity of the column effluent and compares it to a reference flow of carrier gas. Since most compounds have a
thermal conductivity much less than that of the common carrier gases of helium or hydrogen, when an analyte elutes
from the column the effluent thermal conductivity is reduced, and a detectable signal is produced.
Since all compounds, organic and inorganic, have a thermal conductivity different from helium, all compounds
can be detected by this detector. The TCD is often called a universal detector because it responds to all
compounds. Also, since the thermal conductivity of organic compounds are similar and very different from
helium, a TCD will respond similarly to similar concentrations of analyte. Therefore the TCD can be used
without calibration and the concentration of a sample component can be estimated by the ratio of the analyte
peak area to all components (peaks) in the sample.
The TCD is a good general purpose detector for initial investigations with an unknown sample. Since the TCD
is less sensitive than the flame ionization detector and has a larger dead volume it will not provide as good
resolution as the FID. However, in combination with thick film columns and correspondingly larger sample
volumes, the overall detection limit can be similar to that of an FID. The TCD is not as sensitive as other
detectors but it is non-specific and non-destructive.
The TCD is also used in the analysis of permanent gases (argon, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) because it
responds to all these pure substances unlike the FID which cannot detect compounds which do not contain
carbon-hydrogen bonds.
A flame ionization detector (FID) is a type of gas detector used in gas chromatography
The detection of organic compounds is most effectively done with flame ionization. Biochemical compounds such as
proteins, nucleotides, and pharmaceuticals can be studied with flame ionization as well as other detectors, like thermal
conductivity, thermionic, or electrolytic conductivity due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur atoms or
because of the universality of the thermal conductivity detector. However, typically the biochemical compounds have a
greater amount of carbon present than other elements. This means that a particular compound may be more easily
detected using flame ionization over the other methods because of higher carbon concentration and also flame
ionization's sensitivity.
For example, an FID is excellent for detecting methane in nitrogen, since it would respond to the methane but
not to the nitrogen.
FIDs are best for detecting hydrocarbons and other easily flammable components. They are very sensitive to
these components, and response tends to be linear across a wide range of concentrations.
However, an FID destroys most, if not all, of the components it is detecting. Contrarily, with a TCD the
components can continue on to another detector after passing through the TCD; thus it is considered a nondestructive detector (this can be useful for analyzing complex mixtures where different detectors are needed
because of differing detector selectivities). However, with an FID, most components are destroyed and no
further detection is possible.
For this reason, in multiple-detector situations, the FID is almost always the last detector. An FID essentially
can only detect components which can be burned. Other components may be ionized by simply passing through
the FID's flame, but they tend not to create enough signal to rise above the noise of the detector.
FIDs can also be integrated into portable measurement devices and used, for example, for Landfill gas
monitoring and fugitive emissions monitoring.