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World History-Book
Chapter 18 The French Revolution
Explain the ideas of the following Enlightenment thinkers:
1. John Locke – Believed that the government purpose was to protect rights of life, liberty, and
property…if they don’t then the people should rebel.
2. Jean Jacques Rousseau – Believed that the government should be a direct democracy (one where all
citizens have a say)
3. Thomas Hobbes – Believed that conflict was a part of human nature and that the governments purpose
was to keep order.
4. Baron de Montesquieu – Believed that the power in the government should be spread out…This
became known as “Separation of Powers” and is used in the United States today.
5. Voltaire – Believed in a limited government.
Explain the following terms, ideas, people, or events and how they impacted the French Revolution of 1789
and/or the Napoleonic Era.
6. The Enlightenment – Ideas from this time period made French revolutionists think for themselves as
opposed to trusting the authority of the monarchy and the Church.
7. Meeting of the Estates General – a general assembly meeting consisting of representatives from all
three French estates.
8. Marie Antoinette – An Austrian princess who married King Louis XVI at the age of 14. Her head was cut
off during the Reign of Terror.
9. Tennis Court Oath – a promise made by the Third Estate, also known as the National Assembly, that
said they would always meet until they were given equal rights.
10. Louis XVI – The King of France during the French Revolution. He took power after his father died of
smallpox. He too had his head chopped off during the Reign of Terror.
11. Louis XIV and the Palace of Versailles – King Louis the XIV had a luxurious, gold covered, palace
made for himself and all the future monarchs ruling over France. The palace was extremely expensive
to make and took funds away from the starving 3rd Estate citizens.
12. Fall of the Bastille – The Bastille was a high security prison that was the sight of the first uprising by the
National Assembly. Only 7 prisoners were on sight at the time of the attack, BUT the prison was filled
with guns and ammunition.
13. National Assembly – Members of the Third Estate who claimed they were the voice of the people of
14. National Convention – not on test
15. Reign of Terror – a time period during the French Revolution where people in France were arrested for
not supporting the revolution and thousands were beheaded…This was the idea of Robespierre
16. Committee on Public Safety – a 12-member committee that had almost absolute power to help save the
revolution when France was being threatened with war by much of Europe (Britain, Spain, Prussia, the
Netherlands). They were also in charge of trials and executions.
World History-Book
17. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – A document modeled after the American Declaration
of Independence that declared the freedom and equality of all male citizens before the law. It was
written by the National Assembly during the early stages of the French Revolution.
18. Constitution of 1791 Not on test
19. Civil Constitution of the Clergy Not on test
20. The Guillotine – A quick and painless way to behead people.
21. Émigrés – nobles and clergy who had fled France during the Revolution.
22. Robespierre – a lower and politician who quickly rose as the leader of the Committee of Public Safety
and was responsible for the Reign of Terror.
23. Jacobins – A revolutionary political club made up of middle-class men who used newspapers to
advance the call for a Republic.
24. Jacques Louis David – The most famous artist during the French Revolution who painted “The Death of
Marat”, a painting which became the face of the revolution.
25. Constitution of 1792 (what type of gov’t was set up?)
Explain the following events and how they impacted the life/reign of Napoleon Bonaparte.
26. Early life (where he was from, education) – Born in Corsica (island off the southern tip of France), rose
quickly through the military during the Revolution and moved into politics.
27. Napoleon’s rise to power – He became general of the French Army, overthrew the Directory and set up
a 3-man governing board known as the Consulate. He then crowns himself Emperor of France.
28. the Continental System
29. Napoleonic Code – Equality for men, religious toleration, and a complete end to feudalism.
30. Grande Armee – Napoleon’s powerful army which was made up of soldiers from 20 different nations.
31. Napoleon’s 1st Exile – After being unsuccessful in an attempt to take over Moscow Napoleon shows
weakness for the first time and is eventually exiled to the island of Elba, but he escapes and returns to
France where he stays in power for 7 years.
32. Napoleon’s final defeat and consequences – His army is defeated once and for all at Waterloo by the
British and the Prussians. He is again exiled, this time to St. Helena, where he dies.
33. Congress of Vienna – A gathering of European leaders in Austria to restore stability and order to
Europe. They redrew the boundaries of countries and decided to meet occasionally to discuss
European peace.