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-1793 the revolution entered a radical phase
-France experienced one of the bloodiest regimes as determined leaders sought and
preserve the revolution
The Monarchy Is Abolished:
-revolution continued
-well trained Prussian forces were cutting down raw French recruits
-royalist officers deserted the French army, and joined emigres and others hoping to
restore the king's power
Tensions Lead to Violence:
-battle disasters made revolutionaries angry, and thought the king was in the league with
the enemies
-August 10, 1792- crowd of Parisians stormed the royal palace of the Tuileries and
slaughtered the king's guards
-royal family fled to legislative assembly before mob arrived
-citizens attacked prisions, and killed 1200 prisoners, that held nobles and priest that
were accused of political offenses. This is called the "september massacres"
Radicals take control and execute the king:
-Backed by Paris crowds, radicals took control of the assembly
-Radicals called for the election of a new legislative body called the National Convention
-Suffrage was the right to vote that extended to all male citizens, not just property owners
-The national convention (met in september 1792) was more radical than previous
-voted to abolish the monarchy and establish the French Republic
-Deputies then drew up a new constitution
- the Jacobins, who controlled the convention, erased all traces of the old order (they
seized lands of nobles and abolished titles of nobility)
-During the republic, convention put Louis XVI on trial as a traitor of France (he was
convicted by a single vote and beheaded- January 1793)
-October- Marie Antoinette also beheaded, the press celebrated her death but showed
Terror and Danger Grip France
-1793: danger threatened France, the country was at war with Europe (included Britain,
the Netherlands, Spain and Prussia)
- in the Vendee region of France, royalists and priests led peasants in rebellion against the
-Paris- Sans-Culottes demanded relief from food shortages and inflation
-Convention was divided into Jacobins and Girondins (rival group)
The Convention Creates a New Committee:
-Convention created the Committee of public Saftey (to deal with the threats)
-12 member committee, that were in charge of executions and trials, and had almost
absolute power as it battled to save the revolution
-The committee prepared France for a war, issuing a levee en masse, or mass levy (tax)
that required all citizens to contribute to the war
- French recruits marched to save the Republic, young officers developed tatics to win
battles with masses of novice, patriotic forces
-French armies over ran the netherlands, invaded Italy, crushed pesant revolts
-European Monarchs were scared that the revolutionaries were to carry "Freedom Fever"
into conquered lands
Robespierre "The Incorruptible"
-Government batled counterrevolutionaries under the hand of Maximilien Robespierre (a
shrewd lawyer and politician)
- leadership of the Committee of Public Safety
-his dedication to the revolution gave him the nickname "the incorruptible", enemies
called him a tyrant
-embraced Rousseau's idea of general will as the source of all legitimate law
-promoted religous tolernace and wanted to abolish slavery
-hated old regime, like sans-cullottes
-he believed France could achieve a republic through terror and violence
The Guillotine Defines the Reign of Terror
September 1793-July 1794: The Reign of Terror began. A man named
Robespierre was one of the chief architects.
February 5th, 1794- A speech was given by Robespierre explaining why the
terror was necessary to the achieve the goals of the revolution.
About 300,000 people were arrested during the Reign of Terror (1793-1794),
and 17,000 were executed.
The guillotine was a falling blade that took away your life instantly. It
cut off the human heads, and quickly became known as a symbol of horror.
July 27th, 1794 Robespierre was arrested, and the next day executed.
The Revolution Enters Its Third Stage
After the Reign of Terror, the moderates made another constitution, which
was now the third they had made since 1789.
This Constitution of 1795 was made up of a five man Director and a
two-house legislature elected by male citizens of property.
This Directory held power from 1795 to 1799.
There was now peace between Prussia and Spain, but the war with Great
Britain and Austria continued.
When the bread prices began to rise, the poor couldn’t afford it anymore.
This caused the hungry sansculottes to start a riot. The Directory quickly
ended it.
There was another threat to the Directory, which was the revival of
royalist feeling.
In the election of 1797, the supporters of the constitutional monarchy had
won most of the seats in the legislature.
There became more chaos, so the politicians went to Napoleon Bonaparte to
advance their own goals.
Napoleon was a known military hero who had won many victories against the
Austrians in Italy.
Though soon after, Napoleon outsmarted the politicians, and became the
ruler of France.
Revolution Brings change
By 1799, the 10-year old French Revolution had drastically changed France.
The Revolution had removed the social order, overthrown the monarchy, and
brought the Church under state control.
All male citizens had new symbols, which were red “liberty caps”. The name
“citizen” now entitled to people of all social classes. All of the other
titles were taken away.
Louis XVI was called Citizen Capet before he was executed. The name
referred to the dynasty that ruled France in the Middle Ages.
Intricate fashion and wigs gave way to the typical clothes and plain
hairstyles of the sans-culottes.
Nationalism Spreads
The French became known nationwide from the Revolution and war.
As the Monarchs gained more power, loyalty was given to the King or Queen.
Nationalism was a strong feeling of pride and dedication to your country,
which spread throughout France. The French attended festivals that
celebrated their nation and the revolution. Many dances and songs made for
the revolution became widely known.
1793- France was a nation in arms.
Troops marched from Marseilles, (a city), to a new song that urged the
“children of the fatherland” to be against the “bloody banner of tyranny.”
This song was titled “La Marseillaise” which later became known as the
Frances national anthem.
Revolutionaries Push for Social Reform
The Revolutionaries urged for social reform and religious toleration. They
had schools for the religious, and had systems to help the needy, old
soldiers, and war widows.
In St. Domingue (Haiti), there was a huge slave revolt in the colonies.
Because of this, the government destroyed slavery in France’s Caribbean